10 Sachem Street, 203.432.3670
M.A., M.Phil., Ph.D.
Director of Graduate Studies
Professors Richard Bribiescas, Richard Burger, Michael Dove (Forestry & Environmental Studies), Kathryn Dudley (American Studies), J. Joseph Errington, Eduardo Fernandez-Duque, Inderpal Grewal (Women’s, Gender & Sexuality Studies), Marcia Inhorn (Middle East Studies), William Kelly (Emeritus), Paul Kockelman, Roderick McIntosh, Catherine Panter-Brick, Douglas Rogers, Eric Sargis, James Scott (Political Science), Helen Siu, Kalyanakrishnan Sivaramakrishnan, Anne Underhill, Claudia Valeggia, David Watts
Associate Professors Oswaldo Chinchilla, Aimee Cox (African American Studies), Erik Harms, William Honeychurch
Assistant Professors Louisa Lombard, Lisa Messeri
Fields of Study
The department covers three subfields: archaeology; sociocultural and linguistic anthropology; and physical anthropology. Archaeology focuses on ritual complexes and writing, ceramic analysis, warfare, ancient civilizations, origins of agriculture, and museum studies. Sociocultural anthropology provides a range of courses: classics in ethnography and social theory, religion, myth and ritual, kinship and descent, historical anthropology, culture and political economy, agrarian studies, ecology, environment and social change, medical anthropology, emotions, public health, sexual meanings and gender, postcolonial development, ethnicity, identity politics and diaspora, urban anthropology, global mass culture, and alternate modernity. Linguistic anthropology includes language, nationalism and ideology, structuralism and semiotics, and feminist discourse. Physical anthropology focuses on paleoanthropology, evolutionary theory, human functional anatomy, race and human biological diversity, and primate ecology. There is strong geographical coverage in Africa, the Caribbean, East Asia (China and Japan), Latin America and South America, Southeast Asia (Indonesia), South Asia and the Indian Ocean, the Near East, Europe, and the United States.
Special Requirements for the Ph.D. Degree
There are no required courses or seminars for archaeology and biological anthropology graduate students. However, graduate students in these subfields are expected to confer closely with their primary adviser and faculty to develop the most enriching and cogent program of courses. In sociocultural anthropology, more than three-fourths of a student’s program consists of electives, including course work in other departments. Sociocultural students must take six required courses, with the remainder being electives among Anthropology courses and other departments’ courses. Admission to Ph.D. candidacy requires (1) completion of two years of course work (twelve term courses for students matriculating in fall 2018 and beyond; sixteen term courses for students who matriculated earlier); (2) independent study and research; (3) satisfactory performance on qualifying examinations; and (4) a dissertation research proposal submitted and approved before the end of the third year. For sociocultural anthropology students, the research proposal requirement takes the form of a field paper of approximately eighty pages in length. Qualifying examinations are normally taken at the end of the second year. For archaeology and biological anthropology subfields, they consist of eight hours written (four hours on one of the subfields, four hours on the student’s special interest), and two hours oral. The sociocultural anthropology exam consists of five hours written and approximately one hour oral and is based on the six required courses.
Because of the diversity of our students’ training program, the department does not have a general foreign language requirement, either for admission or for admission to Ph.D. candidacy. Rather, each student’s advisory committee must determine the necessary level and nature of foreign language proficiency (including scholarly languages and languages to be used in field research) to be met by the student, as well as any required competencies in statistics and other quantitative or qualitative methods. Advisory committees will stipulate such requirements in writing to the director of graduate studies (DGS) at the earliest possible stage of the student’s program of study for approval by the DGS and the department faculty. Such committee stipulations should specify exactly when and how it will be determined that the student has or has not met the requirements.
Combined Ph.D. Programs
The Anthropology department also offers a combined Ph.D. in Anthropology and Forestry & Environmental Studies in conjunction with the School of Forestry & Environmental Studies, and a combined Ph.D. in Anthropology and African American Studies in conjunction with the Department of African American Studies. These combined programs are ideal for students who intend to concentrate in, and to write dissertations on, thematic and theoretical issues centrally concerned with anthropology and one of these other areas of study. Students in the combined degree programs will be subject to the combined supervision of faculty members in the Anthropology department and in the respective department or school.
Admission into the combined degree program in Anthropology and African American Studies is based on mutual agreement between these two departments. Individual students will develop courses of study in consultation with their academic advisers and with the directors of graduate study for both departments. Students in the program must take core courses in Anthropology and in African American Studies, plus related courses in both departments approved by their advisory committees. In addition, they must successfully complete the African American Studies third-year Dissertation Prospectus Workshop (AFAM 895 and AFAM 896). Oral and written qualifying examinations must include two topics in the field of African American Studies and two topics in Anthropology. The examination committee must include at least one faculty member from each department. The dissertation prospectus must be submitted to the directors of graduate study of both departments and approved by the faculty of both. The thesis readers committee must also include at least one faculty member from each department, and the faculties of both departments must approve its composition.
M.Phil. See Degree Requirements under Policies and Regulations.
M.A. Applications for a terminal master’s degree are not accepted. The M.A. degree is awarded only to students not continuing in the Ph.D. program. The student must complete eight graduate-level term courses approved for credit in the Anthropology department and maintain an average grade of High Pass. Students who are eligible for or who have already received the M.Phil. will not be awarded the M.A.
Contact information: Director of Graduate Studies, Department of Anthropology, Yale University, PO Box 208277, New Haven CT 06520-8277; 203.432.3670; e-mail, firstname.lastname@example.org; website, http://anthropology.yale.edu.
ANTH 500a, The Development of the Discipline: Contemporary Themes Douglas Rogers
The major theoretical orientations in social and cultural anthropology (especially in the United States and Europe), their historical development and importance, their relation to one another and to other disciplines. The seminar is reserved for first-year doctoral students in Anthropology.
ANTH 501a, Anthropology and Classical Social Theory Paul Kockelman
Readings of primary texts in classical social theory, especially the writings of Marx, Weber, and Durkheim. Particular emphasis is placed on the role of these theorists in the early development of anthropology and social science more broadly. The course is reserved for first-year graduate students in Anthropology.
ANTH 502a, Research in Sociocultural Anthropology: Design and Methods Marcia Inhorn
The course offers critical evaluation of the nature of ethnographic research. Research design includes the rethinking of site, voice, and ethnographic authority.
ANTH 513a, Language, Culture, and Ideology J. Joseph Errington
Influential anthropological theories of culture are reviewed with critical reference to theories of language that inspired or informed them. Topics include American and European structuralism; cognitivist and interpretivist approaches to cultural description; work of Bakhtin, Bourdieu, and various "critical theorists."
ANTH 531b / ARCG 531b / CLSS 815b / EALL 773b / HIST 502b / HSAR 564b / JDST 653b / NELC 533b / RLST 803b, Sensory Experiences in Ancient Ritual Carolyn Laferriere and Andrew Turner
A comparative exploration of the role the senses played in the performance of ancient and premodern ritual, drawing from a range of ancient traditions including those of Greece, Rome, and Egypt, and from cultural traditions of the Near East, India, China, and the New World. Placing particular emphasis on the relationship between art and ritual, we discuss the methods available for reconstructing ancient sensory experience, how the ancient cultures conceived of the senses and perception, and how worshipers’ sensory experiences, whether visual, sonic, olfactory, gustatory, or haptic, were integral aspects in their engagement with the divine within religious ritual. This seminar incorporates material in the Yale Art Gallery.
ANTH 533b, Bilingualism in Social Context J. Joseph Errington
The linguistic phenomenon of bilingualism is presented through broad issues in social description inseparably linked to it: growth and change in bilingual communities; bilingual usage, social identity, and allegiance; and interactional significances of bilingual speech repertoire use.
ANTH 538a / GLBL 838a, Culture and Politics in the Contemporary Middle East Marcia Inhorn
This interdisciplinary seminar is designed to introduce students to some of the most pressing contemporary cultural and political issues shaping life in the Middle East and North Africa. The course aims for broad regional coverage, with particular focus on several important nation-states (e.g., Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Afghanistan, Iran, Iraq) and Western interventions in them. Students should emerge with a keener sense of Middle Eastern regional histories and contemporary social issues, as described by leading scholars in the field of Middle Eastern studies and particularly Middle Eastern anthropology. Following a historical introduction, the course is organized around three core themes—Islam, politics, modernity—with movement from the macropolitical level of Islamic discourse and state politics to the most intimate domains of gender, family life, and contemporary youth culture. Through reading, thinking, talking, and writing about a series of book-length monographs, students gain broad exposure to a number of exigent issues in the Middle Eastern region, as well as to the ethnographic methodologies and critical theories of Middle East anthropologists. Students are graded on seminar participation, leadership of seminar discussions, two review/analysis papers, and a comparative written review of three books. Required for Council on Middle East Studies (CMES) graduate certificate students. Recommended for Middle East concentrators in other disciplines.
ANTH 541a / HIST 965 / PLSC 779a, Agrarian Societies: Culture, Society, History, and Development James Scott, Kalyanakrishnan Sivaramakrishnan, and Elisabeth Wood
An interdisciplinary examination of agrarian societies, contemporary and historical, Western and non-Western. Major analytical perspectives from anthropology, economics, history, political science, and environmental studies are used to develop a meaning-centered and historically grounded account of the transformations of rural society. Team-taught.
ANTH 559b / ARCG 559b, Introduction to Experimental Archaeology Roderick McIntosh and Ellery Frahm
Experimental archaeology is one of the most important tools to develop and test models that link human behaviors and natural forces to the archaeological record. This class explores the elements of good experimental design and procedures.
ANTH 570a, Anthropology of Information Paul Kockelman
This course is about the digital and computational mediation of meaning. In some sense, it is about human-based significance in relation to machine-based sieving. We read classic works in media studies, cybernetics, computer science, semiotics, anthropology, and critical theory. Key topics include the relation between meaning and information; the relation between interpretation and computation; and the relation between interaction and infrastructure.
ANTH 571b, Modern Indonesia J. Joseph Errington
Political and cultural dynamics in contemporary Indonesia explored from historical and anthropological perspectives. Major ethnic groups, key historical dynamics, political culture, and interaction between modernization and traditional lifeways. Issues of ethnicity, gender, religion, and economy in situations of rapid social change.
ANTH 575b / EAST 575b, Hubs, Mobilities, and Global Cities Helen Siu
Analysis of urban life in historical and contemporary societies. Topics include capitalist and postmodern transformations, class, gender, ethnicity, migration, and global landscapes of power and citizenship.
ANTH 588a, Politics of Culture in Southeast Asia Eve Zucker
The course analyzes how Southeast Asian nations promote national culture as part of political and economic agendas. It also explores Southeast Asian cultural and political diversity to rescue the possibility for cultural difference within a global world.
ANTH 597a, Social Science of Conservation and Development Carol Carpenter
This course is designed to provide M.E.M., M.E.Sc., and doctoral students with the opportunity to master the essential social science literature on sustainable development and conservation. Social science makes two contributions to the practice of development and conservation. First, it provides ways of thinking about, researching, and working with social groupings—including rural households and communities, but also development and conservation institutions, states, and NGOs. This aspect includes relations between groups at all these levels, and the role of power in these relations. Second, social science tackles the analysis of the knowledge systems that implicitly shape development and conservation policy and impinge on practice. In other words, we analyze communities but also our own ideas of what communities are. We also examine our ideas about sustainable development and conservation, and we look at development and the institutions that implement it from the perspective of communities. The emphasis throughout is on how these things shape the practice of sustainable development and conservation. Case studies used in the course have been balanced as much as possible between Southeast Asia, South Asia, Africa, and Latin America; most are rural and Third World (largely due to the development and conservation focus). The course includes readings from all noneconomic social sciences. Readings are equally focused on conservation and development. The goal of the course is to stimulate students to apply informed and critical thinking (which means not criticizing others, but questioning our own underlying assumptions) to whatever roles they may come to play in sustainable development and conservation, in order to move toward more environmentally and socially sustainable projects and policies. The course is also designed to help students shape future research by learning to ask questions that build on, but are unanswered by, the social science theory of conservation and development. No prerequisites. This is a requirement for the joint F&ES/Anthropology doctoral program and a prerequisite for some advanced F&ES courses. Open to advanced undergraduates. Three hours lecture/seminar.
ANTH 600b, Contemporary Social Theory Louisa Lombard
An overview of central themes and debates in contemporary social theory, with a focus on the integration of theory and research, rather than a hermeneutical analysis of particular theoretical texts. Concentrating on questions of power, inequality, the self, and community, assessment of the relevance of sociological theory to advancing an understanding of the complexities of late-twentieth-century Western society. Critical theory, feminist theories, postmodernism, and the contributions of individual theorists are reviewed and critiqued.
ANTH 639a / AFST 639a, Africa, Politics, Anthropology Louisa Lombard
A historical-anthropological study of politics in Africa. How have anthropologists made sense of the workings of African politics, both those of state and nonstate actors? This course charts how African states came into being, how they operate, and how state agents and the people they govern negotiate legitimacy, authority, and belonging.
ANTH 643a, Primate Behavior and Ecology Eduardo Fernandez-Duque
Socioecology of primates compared with that of other mammals, emphasizing both general principles and unique primate characteristics. Topics include life-history strategies, feeding ecology, mating systems, and ecological influences on social organization.
ANTH 647a / AMST 637a / WGSS 652a, Transnationalism and Mobility: Theories and Paradigms Inderpal Grewal
This course focuses on transnational research by examining its theoretical and methodological reliance on paradigms of “mobility.” Based on concepts coming from migration studies, ethnic and race studies, postcolonial studies, and critical theory, transnational research has now become ubiquitous. Much of this work in its most exciting manifestations works against traditional approaches to nation, area, and migration, providing new ways to conceptualize subjects, states, epistemologies, and ontologies. It has also emerged within the disciplines with practitioners who think not in term of comparative or area research, but through flows, movements, networks, and unstable boundaries. The course examines the importance of this body of research in understanding histories and genealogies of colonialism and modernity. We also look at how historians are producing exciting work that refuses to remain within the boundaries of international area studies; anthropologists who are redrawing the “field” of research; and, importantly, the emergence of a feminist approach to transnationalism and mobility that has also impacted WGSS. The course brings together a broad area of research that looks at the ways in which modernity—especially Western modernity—has included conceptualizations of movement and speed, travel and mobility. We investigate these mobile modernities to understand also what is seen as outside such modernity. In doing so, the course brings an interdisciplinary feminist cultural analysis to theories of transnationalism and postcoloniality.
ANTH 684b / WGSS 660b, Men, Manhood, and Masculinity Andrew Dowe
Cultural and historic constructions of masculinity through an investigation of male bodies, sexualities, and social interactions. Examination of multiple masculinities and exploration of the relationships among hegemonic, non-hegemonic, and subordinate masculinities.
ANTH 692b / ARCG 692b / NELC 537b, Imaging Ancient Worlds Roderick McIntosh, John Darnell, and Agnete Lassen
The interpretation of epigraphic and archaeological material within the broader context of landscape, by means of creating a virtual model to reconstruct the sensory experiences of the ancient peoples who created the sites. Use of new technologies in computer graphics, including 3-D imaging, to support current research in archaeology and anthropology.
ANTH 700b, The Development of the Discipline: Contemporary Themes Kalyanakrishnan Sivaramakrishnan
Second term of yearlong core course on the major theoretical orientations in social and cultural anthropology (especially in the United States and Europe), their historical development and importance, their relation to one another and to other disciplines. Reserved for first-year doctoral students in Anthropology. Prerequisite: ANTH 500.
ANTH 701b, Foundations of Modern Archaeology Richard Burger
How method, theory, and social policy have influenced the development of archaeology as a set of methods, an academic discipline, and a political tool. Prerequisite: a background in the basics of archaeology equivalent to one of the introductory courses.
ANTH 716La / ARCG 716La, Introduction to Archaeological Laboratory Sciences Ellery Frahm
Introduction to techniques of archaeological laboratory analysis, with quantitative data styles and statistics appropriate to each. Topics include dating of artifacts, sourcing of ancient materials, remote sensing, and microscopic and biochemical analysis. Specific techniques covered vary from year to year.
ANTH 718b, Archaeological Study of Craft Specialization Anne Underhill
In this seminar we evaluate methods for investigating the nature of craft specialization in antiquity. We consider methods to identify material traces of production activities and insights gained from ethnoarchaeological and ethnohistoric data. Several types of craft production are included. Another component of the course is discussion of the theoretical significance of the nature of craft specialization.
ANTH 735b, Gendering the Modern Subject Eda Pepi
This seminar familiarizes students with how the analytical categories of sex and gender interrogate “classic” philosophical texts and restructure key debates on the nature of the human subject as a locus of unmarked, universal reason and purposeful action as well as embodied perception and passion. From Spinoza and Descartes to Hegel and Merleau-Ponty, we engage an overview of the conceptual and historical development of modern, Western ideas of personhood and the emergence of liberalism as the basis of new technologies of the self. We read these texts alongside feminist, critical race, and postcolonial commentaries that highlight the sexual and racial constitution of a seemingly universal subject of modernity. These commentaries trace how practical theories of “lower” or minor selves—the subject people of the colonies, slaves, and others—were integral to the very development of ideas of the modern, autonomous, and acting self in the Western world.
ANTH 743a / ARCG 743a, Archaeological Research Design and Proposal Development William Honeychurch
An effective proposal requires close consideration of all steps of research design, from statement of the problem to data analysis. The course is designed to provide an introduction to the principles by which archaeological research projects are devised and proposed. Students receive intensive training in the preparation of a research proposal with the expectation that the final proposal will be submitted to national and international granting agencies for consideration. The course is structured around the creation of research questions; hypothesis development and statement of expectations; and the explicit linking of expectations to material patterning, field methods, and data analysis. Students review and critique examples of funded and nonfunded research proposals and comment extensively on each other's proposals. In addition to developing one's own research, learning to constructively critique the work of colleagues is imperative for becoming a responsible anthropological archaeologist.
ANTH 754a / ARCG 754a, Statistics for Archaeological Analysis William Honeychurch
An introduction to quantitative data collection, analysis, and argumentation for archaeologists. Lectures, readings, and exercises emphasize the exploration, visualization, and analysis of specifically archaeological data using simple statistical approaches. No prior knowledge of statistics is required.
ANTH 755b / ARCG 755b, Inca Culture and Society Richard Burger
The history and organization of the Inca empire and its impact on the nations and cultures conquered by it. The role of archaeology in understanding the transformation of Andean lifeways is explored, as is the interplay between ethnohistoric and archaeological approaches to the subject.
ANTH 756a / ARCG 756a, The Archaeology of Trade and Exchange Richard Burger
This seminar focuses on archaeological approaches to exchange and trade. As background, we review some of the principal theories of exchange from anthropology and sociology, such as those of Mauss, Malinowski, and Polanyi. The role of trade and exchange in different kinds of societies is examined by contextualizing these transactions within specific cultural configurations and considering the nature of production and consumption as they relate to movement of goods. We consider methods and models that have been used to analyze regions of interaction at different spatial scales and the theoretical arguments about the social impact of inter-regional and intra-regional interactions involving the transfer of goods, including approaches such as world systems, unequal development, and globalization. In addition, we examine the ways that have been utilized in archaeology to identify different kinds of exchange systems, often through analogies to well-documented ethnographic and historic cases. Finally, we consider the range of techniques that have been employed in order to track the movement of goods across space. These sourcing techniques are evaluated in terms of their advantages and disadvantages from an archaeological perspective, and in terms of how the best technical analyses may vary according to the nature of natural or cultural materials under consideration (ceramics, volcanic stone, metals, etc.). The theme for this year’s seminar is obsidian; students select some aspect of obsidian research for their final paper and presentation.
ANTH 763b / ARCG 763b / NELC 589b, Archaeologies of Empire Harvey Weiss
Comparative study of origins, structures, efficiencies, and limitations of imperialism, ancient and modern, in the Old and New World, from Akkad to “Indochine,” and from Wari to Aztec. The contrast between ancient and modern imperialisms examined from the perspectives of nineteenth- and twentieth-century archaeology and political economy.
ANTH 773b / ARCG 773b / NELC 588b, Abrupt Climate Change and Societal Collapse Harvey Weiss
Collapse documented in the archaeological and early historical records of the Old and New Worlds, including Mesopotamia, Mesoamerica, the Andes, and Europe. Analysis of politicoeconomic vulnerabilities, resiliencies, and adaptations in the face of abrupt climate change, anthropogenic environmental degradation, resource depletion, “barbarian” incursions, or class conflict.
ANTH 776b / ARCG 776b, GIS and Spatial Analysis for Archaeology William Honeychurch
Introduction to the practice of Geographical Information Systems in anthropology with attention to archaeological applications. The growing use of GIS among anthropologists has transformed the way we carry out research and conceive of space. The course draws on research examples from a range of theoretical, analytical, and geographical contexts and introduces students to current software. Emphasis is placed on understanding how anthropological archaeologists have employed GIS as part of generating evidence to assess their hypotheses.
ANTH 785a / ARCG 785a, Archaeological Ceramics I Anne Underhill
Ceramics are a rich source of information about a range of topics including ancient technology, cooking practices, craft specialization, regional trade, and religious beliefs. This course provides a foundation for investigating such topics and gaining practical experience in archaeological analysis of ceramics. Students have opportunities to focus on ceramics of particular interest to them, whether these are low-fired earthen wares, or porcelains. We discuss ancient pottery production and use made in diverse contexts ranging from households in villages to workshops in cities. In addition we refer to the abundant ethnoarchaeological data about traditional pottery production.
ANTH 797b / ARCG 797b, Archaeology of East Asia Anne Underhill
Introduction to the findings and practice of archaeology in China, Japan, Korea, and southeast Asia. Methods used by archaeologists to interpret social organization, economic organization, and ritual life. Attention to major transformations such as the initial peopling of an area, establishment of farming villages, the development of cities, interregional interactions, and the nature of political authority.
ANTH 806a, Research Methods in Biological Anthropology Claudia Valeggia and Eduardo Fernandez-Duque
The goal of the course is to encourage students to consider whether we should all “stop working and start thinking.” We use the title of the book by J. Cohen and G. Medley as a premise to read and discuss issues related to research design, data analyses, and interpretation of results. We focus on foundational topics in science that we think are not getting enough attention early enough in the process of doing scientific research. Some of the specific topics addressed are: (1) articulation of clear hypotheses and predictions; (2) considerations of study feasibility, sample size, selection of proxy variables, and data organization; (3) a priori statistical protocols; (4) data-sharing plans; (5) interpretation of statistical vs. biological significance of results; and (6) broader impacts.
ANTH 835b / E&EB 842b, Primate Diversity and Evolution Eric Sargis
The diversity and evolutionary history of living and extinct primates. Focus on major controversies in primate systematics and evolution, including the origins and relationships of several groups. Consideration of both morphological and molecular studies. Morphological diversity and adaptations explored through museum specimens and fossil casts.
ANTH 852b / AMST 852b / WGSS 852b, Reading the Americas, Reading Ethnography Ana Ramos-Zayas
The course uses ethnographic approaches to understand “America” as a hemispheric formation, while simultaneously examining “ethnography” as methodological, epistemological, and representational craft. Complemented by critical readings and seminar discussions about some of the trademarks of ethnographic research—e.g., participant observation, life history, field notes, and field sites—the course is designed to encourage students to interrogate the theoretical and methodological models that have been used in the production of knowledge about the Americas. Emphasizing ethnography’s concern with everyday life, practices, routines, and relationships, it analyzes how micro-processes and manifestations of race, sexuality, class, and gender entwine with macro-processes of empire and nation-state building, globalization, neoliberalism, transnationalism, urbanism, and social inequality in the United States, Latin America, and parts of the Caribbean. While this is not a “how to” course on ethnographic research, we use classic and contemporary ethnography to understand the region and gain greater knowledge about the process, epistemology, and politics of fieldwork. We analyze a number of aspects and approaches to doing and writing ethnography, including the challenges of entering, being in, and leaving the field; and as we build familiarity with the components of ethnography, we consider its applicability to an array of topics, settings, objects, cultural dynamics, and relationships.
ANTH 861b, Love and Relationships: An Evolutionary Perspective Eduardo Fernandez-Duque
Across the world, relationships between men and women shape the structure and functioning of human societies. Whether as friendship, love, or marriage, a man and a woman develop a relationship between them that is special, different from the relationship that they have with other adults in the community. Psychologists, historians, poets, anthropologists, artists, biologists, economists have all testified to this ubiquitous phenomenon. There is a bond, an attachment between them, and there is some implicit or explicit commitment to share space, time, resources, offspring, and labor.
ANTH 864b / ARCG 864b, Human Osteology Eric Sargis
A lecture and laboratory course focusing on the characteristics of the human skeleton and its use in studies of functional morphology, paleodemography, and paleopathology. Laboratories familiarize students with skeletal parts; lectures focus on the nature of bone tissue, its biomechanical modification, sexing, aging, and interpretation of lesions.
ANTH 875a, Primate Behavioral Ecology David Watts
Includes kinship and dominance as organizing principles of primate social groups; feeding competition and risk of predation as determinants of group size; mating strategies and sexual dimorphism; dispersal, transfer, and the permeability of social boundaries; the structure of primate communities; the role of primates in ecological community function.
ANTH 950a, Directed Research: Preparation for Qualifying Exam David Watts
By arrangement with faculty.
ANTH 951a or b, Directed Research in Ethnology and Social Anthropology Staff
By arrangement with faculty.
ANTH 952b, Directed Research in Linguistics Staff
By arrangement with faculty.
ANTH 953a or b, Directed Research in Archaeology and Prehistory Staff
By arrangement with faculty.
ANTH 954a or b, Directed Research in Biological Anthropology Staff
By arrangement with faculty.
ANTH 955a or b, Directed Research in Evolutionary Biology Staff
By arrangement with faculty.
ANTH 965a, Directed Research in Physical Anthropolgy David Watts
By arrangement with faculty.