Environmental Studies examines the complex relationships between humans and the environment. The major offers grounding in the natural sciences combined with a broad interdisciplinary curriculum. Earth and life sciences combine with the physical sciences to provide the means to observe and assess environmental changes. Study in the social sciences—anthropology, political science, and economics—encourages students to examine the role of nature in shaping communities, governments, and the institutions of human societies that in turn shape environments. Study in the humanities—including history, literature, ethics, religion, and the fine arts—allows students to consider the origins and influence of human values and practices, and also the ways that nature has been perceived and depicted.
Students can elect to pursue either a B.A. or a B.S. degree within Environmental Studies. The B.A. program is intended for those students interested in an interdisciplinary exploration of environmental issues. The B.S. program is designed for students who want to pursue training in interdisciplinary environmental science.
Both degree programs require a natural science laboratory or field course focusing on research and analytic methods chosen from EVST 202L, 221, 234L, 244, 290, 362, or G&G 126L; and a term course in mathematics, physics or statistics selected from MATH 112 and above (excluding MATH 190), or PHYS 170 and above, or S&DS 101 and above. For the B.A. degree, additional prerequisites are one term of chemistry from EVST 180, CHEM 161, or CHEM 163, and one term of biology from BIOL 101 and 102, or G&G 125, or MCDB 123. For the B.S. degree, additional prerequisites are a two-term lecture sequence in chemistry (or CHEM 118 or CHEM 167), and two terms of biology from BIOL 101-104, or G&G 125, or MCDB 123.
Students are advised to take chemistry and biology during the first year before enrolling in the EVST core courses in natural sciences. It is recommended that students complete the prerequisites by the end of their sophomore year, although this is not required. Where relevant, students in the B.A. program may employ acceleration credits to fulfill science prerequisites.
Requirements of the Major
The major for the Class of 2018 With DUS approval, the following changes to the requirements of the major may be fulfilled by students who declared their major under previous requirements.
The major for the Class of 2019 and subsequent classes For both degree programs, the major requires a group of prerequisites or equivalents; four core courses; a concentration of six courses; and a senior requirement, as described below.
B.A. degree program In addition to the prerequisites, the B.A. degree requires at least eleven course credits, consisting of the core requirements, the concentration, and the senior requirement.
B.S. degree program In addition to the prerequisites, the B.S. degree requires at least twelve course credits, consisting of the core requirements, the concentration and the two-term senior requirement.
Core courses Two core courses in the humanities and social sciences selected from EVST 120, 226, 255, 340, or 345; and two natural science core courses from EVST 200, EVST 201, 223 or 242. Completing one course in each area is recommended before the end of the sophomore year.
Areas of concentration Students plan their concentration in consultation with the director of undergraduate studies and the student's adviser. A concentration is defined as six courses that provide analytical depth in a particular environmental problem or issue of interest, as well as disciplinary expertise. One of these six courses must be an advanced seminar (200 level or higher) that exposes students to primary literature, extensive writing requirements, and experience with research methods. For the B.S. degree, three of the six courses must have the science (Sc) designation, and two must provide interdisciplinary context to the concentration. Past concentrations include biodiversity and conservation; climate change and energy; environmental history; environmental policy; food and agriculture; human health and environment; and urban environments. Students also have the opportunity to design a unique concentration within the major, in consultation with the DUS.
Credit/D/Fail No course taken Credit/D/Fail may be counted toward the major, including prerequisites.
In the junior year, all students consult with their advisers on the design of their project and submit a preliminary plan to the DUS for approval.
B.A. degree program For the B.A. degree, students most often complete two terms of EVST 496, a colloquium in which they write their senior essay. One-term senior projects require the permission of the DUS, and are generally undertaken only in conjunction with a double major. Only those students who complete a two-term essay are eligible for Distinction in the Major.
B.S. degree program For the B.S. degree, students complete two terms of EVST 496.
Advising and Application to the Major
Students typically apply to enter the major during their sophomore year. Applications are accepted throughout the year, and must be made in writing to the DUS; details can be found on the program's website. Juniors who have already completed considerable course work toward the major may also apply. Students considering a major in Environmental Studies should consult the DUS as early as possible in the first year.
Summer Environmental Fellowship During the summer, many students gain experience in the field through research or internships in an area pertinent to their academic development or their senior essay project. Internships may be arranged with nonprofit organizations, government agencies, or corporations. Although the summer program is optional, many students take advantage of this opportunity with some financial support from the program.
REQUIREMENTS OF THE MAJOR
Prerequisites B.A. and B.S. degrees—1 course from EVST 202L, 221, 234L, 244, 290, 362, or G&G 126L; MATH 112 or above (excluding MATH 190), or PHYS 170 or above, or S&DS 101 or above; B.A.—EVST 180, or CHEM 161, or CHEM 163; BIOL 101 and 102, or G&G 125, or MCDB 123; B.S.—two-term lecture sequence in chem, or CHEM 118 or CHEM 167; two terms from BIOL 101 and 102, or 103 and 104, or G&G 125, or 123
Number of courses B.A.—at least 11 course credits, incl senior project; B.S.—at least 12 course credits, incl senior project
Distribution of courses B.A.—6 courses in area of concentration, including 1 advanced sem as specified; B.S.—6 courses in area of concentration, 3 of which must have Sc designation, and including 1 advanced sem as specified
FACULTY ASSOCIATED WITH THE PROGRAM OF ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES
Professors D. Michelle Addington (School of Architecture, Forestry & Environmental Studies), Paul Anastas (Forestry & Environmental Studies), Gaboury Benoit (Forestry & Environmental Studies), Graeme Berlyn (Forestry & Environmental Studies), Ruth Blake (Geology & Geophysics), Mark Bradford (Forestry & Environmental Studies), Derek Briggs (Geology & Geophysics), Gary Brudvig (Chemistry, Molecular Biophysics & Biochemistry), Benjamin Cashore (Forestry & Environmental Studies), Deborah Coen (History), Michael Donoghue (Ecology & Evolutionary Biology, Forestry & Environmental Studies), Michael Dove (Forestry & Environmental Studies, Anthropology), Menachem Elimelech (Chemical & Environmental Engineering), Durland Fish (Public Health, Forestry & Environmental Studies), Thomas Graedel (Forestry & Environmental Studies), Benedict Kiernan (History), Robert Mendelsohn (Forestry & Environmental Studies, Economics), Alan Mikhail (History), Jeffrey Park (Geology & Geophysics), Peter Perdue (History), David Post (Ecology & Evolutionary Biology), Jeffrey Powell (Ecology & Evolutionary Biology, Forestry & Environmental Studies), Peter Raymond (Forestry & Environmental Studies), Susan Rose-Ackerman (Law School, Political Science), Paul Sabin (History), James Saiers (Forestry & Environmental Studies), Oswald Schmitz (Forestry & Environmental Studies, Ecology & Evolutionary Biology), James Scott (Political Science, Anthropology), Karen Seto (Forestry & Environmental Studies), Kalyanakrishnan Sivaramakrishnan (Anthropology, Forestry & Environmental Studies), David Skelly (Forestry & Environmental Studies, Ecology & Evolutionary Biology), Brian Skinner (Geology & Geophysics), Ronald Smith (Geology & Geophysics, Forestry & Environmental Studies), Stephen Stearns (Ecology & Evolutionary Biology), Charles Tomlin (Forestry & Environmental Studies) (Visiting), John Wargo (Forestry & Environmental Studies, Political Science), Harvey Weiss (Near Eastern Languages & Civilizations, Anthropology), John Wettlaufer (Geology & Geophysics), Robert Wyman (Molecular, Cellular, & Developmental Biology)
Associate Professors Laura Barraclough (American Studies), David Vasseur (Ecology & Evolutionary Biology), Julie Zimmerman (Chemical & Environmental Engineering)
Assistant Professors Anjelica Gonzalez (Biomedical Engineering), William Rankin (History, History of Science)
Senior Lecturers Shimon Anisfeld, Carol Carpenter, Amity Doolittle, John Grim, Fred Strebeigh
Lecturers Ian Cheney, Mary Beth Decker, Kealoha Freidenburg, Gordon Geballe, Paul Lussier, Linda Puth, Catherine Skinner
* EVST 007a, The New England Forest Marlyse Duguid
Exploration of the natural history of southern New England, with specific focus on areas in and around New Haven. Pertinent environmental issues, such as climate change, endangered species, and the role of glacial and human history in shaping vegetative patterns and processes, are approached from a multi-disciplinary framework and within the context of the surrounding landscape. Enrollment limited to freshmen. Preregistration required; see under Freshman Seminar Program.
* EVST 010a / G&G 010a, Earth, Resources, Energy, and the Environment Mary-Louise Timmermans
Humankind's interactions with, and place within, the natural world. Plate tectonics and natural disasters, biological evolution and mass extinction, human evolution, population growth and ecology, industrial resources, groundwater and pollution, fossil fuels and energy transitions, the carbon cycle and greenhouse gases, paleoclimates, current global warming, alternative energies, and a planetary perspective on the Earth as a singular oasis in space. Enrollment limited to freshmen. Preregistration required; see under Freshman Seminar Program. SC
* EVST 020a / F&ES 020a, Sustainable Development in Haiti Gordon Geballe
The principles and practice of sustainable development explored in the context of Haiti's rich history and culture, as well as its current environmental and economic impoverishment. Enrollment limited to freshmen. Preregistration required; see under Freshman Seminar Program. WR
* EVST 030b / ARCG 031b / CLCV 059b / HIST 020b / NELC 026b, Rivers and Civilization Harvey Weiss
The appearance of the earliest cities along the Nile and Euphrates in the fourth millennium B.C. Settlements along the rivers, the origins of agriculture, the production and extraction of agricultural surpluses, and the generation of class structures and political hierarchies. How and why these processes occurred along the banks of these rivers; consequent societal collapses and their relation to abrupt climate changes. Enrollment limited to freshmen. Preregistration required; see under Freshman Seminar Program. HU, SO
* EVST 100b / APHY 100b / ENAS 100b / G&G 105b / PHYS 100b, Energy Technology and Society Daniel Prober, Michael Oristaglio, and Julie Paquette
The technology and use of energy. Impacts on the environment, climate, security, and economy. Application of scientific reasoning and quantitative analysis. Intended for non–science majors with strong backgrounds in math and science. Enrollment limited to 24. For application instructions, visit the course site on Classes*v2. QR, SC
Humanities and Social Sciences
EVST 120b / AMST 163b / HIST 120b / HSHM 204b, American Environmental History Paul Sabin
Ways in which people have shaped and been shaped by the changing environments of North America from precolonial times to the present. Migration of species and trade in commodities; the impact of technology, agriculture, and industry; the development of resources in the American West and overseas; the rise of modern conservation and environmental movements; the role of planning and impact of public policies. WR, HU
EVST 226a / ARCG 226a / NELC 268a, Global Environmental History Harvey Weiss
The dynamic relationship between environmental and social forces from the Pleistocene glaciations to the Anthropocene present. Pleistocene extinctions; transition from hunting and gathering to agriculture; origins of cities, states, and civilization; adaptations and collapses of Old and New World civilizations in the face of climate disasters; the destruction and reconstruction of the New World by the Old. Focus on issues of adaptation, resilience, and sustainability, including forces that caused long-term societal change. SO
EVST 255a / F&ES 255a / PLSC 215a, Environmental Politics and Law John Wargo
Exploration of the politics, policy, and law associated with attempts to manage environmental quality and natural resources. Themes of democracy, liberty, power, property, equality, causation, and risk. Case histories include air quality, water quality and quantity, pesticides and toxic substances, land use, agriculture and food, parks and protected areas, and energy. SO
EVST 340b / ECON 330b, Economics of Natural Resources Robert Mendelsohn
Microeconomic theory brought to bear on current issues in natural resource policy. Topics include regulation of pollution, hazardous waste management, depletion of the world's forests and fisheries, wilderness and wildlife preservation, and energy planning. After introductory microeconomics. QR, SO
EVST 201a / G&G 140a, Atmosphere, Ocean, and Environmental Change Ronald Smith
Physical processes that control Earth's atmosphere, ocean, and climate. Quantitative methods for constructing energy and water budgets. Topics include clouds, rain, severe storms, regional climate, the ozone layer, air pollution, ocean currents and productivity, the seasons, El Niño, the history of Earth's climate, global warming, energy, and water resources. Must be taken concurrently with EVST 202L. QR, SC
* EVST 202La / G&G 141La, Laboratory for Atmosphere, Ocean, and Environmental Change Ronald Smith
EVST 223a / E&EB 220a, General Ecology David Vasseur
The theory and practice of ecology, including the ecology of individuals, population dynamics and regulation, community structure, ecosystem function, and ecological interactions at broad spatial and temporal scales. Topics such as climate change, fisheries management, and infectious diseases are placed in an ecological context. Prerequisite: MATH 112 or equivalent. SC
Intermediate and Advanced Courses
The following courses have been approved for developing areas of concentration. Other courses may be suitable for designing an area of concentration with permission of the director of undergraduate studies.
* EVST 143a / PLSC 142a, Global Climate Governance Detlef Sprinz
An overview of global climate governance, including overarching conceptual frameworks, a variety of empirical subdomains, interlinkages with other policy fields, and modeling central challenges encountered in global climate governance. Students prepare a range of individual and group assignments throughout the term. SO
EVST 182a / ANTH 300a / E&EB 300a, Primate Behavior and Ecology Eduardo Fernandez-Duque
Socioecology of primates compared with that of other mammals, emphasizing both general principles and unique primate characteristics. Topics include life-history strategies, feeding ecology, mating systems, and ecological influences on social organization. SC, SO
EVST 191b, Trees: Environmental Biology and Global Significance Craig Brodersen
Underlying principles that govern tree biology in both time and space. The biophysics of energy balance, water transport, and gas exchange, from individual plant organs to the tree and forest canopy; principles of cells and membranes; the fundamental differences between plant and animal cells; regional and global patterns in forest dynamics; implications of disruptions in the biotic and abiotic environment. Case studies focus on understanding forests and forest products and their global significance. SC
EVST 196a / AFAM 196a / AMST 196a / ER&M 226a / SOCY 190a, Race, Class, and Gender in American Cities Laura Barraclough
Examination of how racial, gender, and class inequalities have been built, sustained, and challenged in American cities. Focus on the twentieth and twenty-first centuries. Topics include industrialization and deindustrialization, segregation, gendered public/private split, gentrification, transit equity, environmental justice, food access, and the relationships between public space, democracy, and community wellbeing. Includes field projects in New Haven. SO
* EVST 212a / EP&E 390a / PLSC 212a, Democracy and Sustainability Michael Fotos
Democracy, liberty, and the sustainable use of natural resources. Concepts include institutional analysis, democratic consent, property rights, market failure, and common pool resources. Topics of policy substance are related to human use of the environment and to U.S. and global political institutions. WR, SO
* EVST 215a / ENGL 459a / MB&B 459a, Writing about Science, Medicine, and the Environment Carl Zimmer
Advanced non-fiction workshop in which students write about science, medicine, and the environment for a broad public audience. Students read exemplary work, ranging from newspaper articles to book excerpts, to learn how to translate complex subjects into compelling prose. Admission by permission of the instructor only. Applicants should email the instructor at firstname.lastname@example.org with the following information: 1. One or two samples of nonacademic, nonfiction writing. (No fiction or scientific papers, please.) Indicate the course or publication, if any, for which you wrote each sample. 2. A note in which you briefly describe your background (including writing experience and courses) and explain why you’d like to take the course. WR RP
* EVST 234La, Field Science: Environment and Sustainability L. Kealoha Freidenburg
A field course that explores the effects of human influences on the environment. Analysis of pattern and process in forested ecosystems; introduction to the principles of agroecology, including visits to local farms; evaluation of sustainability within an urban environment. Weekly field trips and one weekend field trip. SC
T 1pm-2:15pm, Th 1pm-5pm
* EVST 231a, Temperate Woody Plant Taxonomy and Dendrology Marlyse Duguid
Identification of the major temperate plant families, with a focus on North American forest species; integration of morphology, phenology, ecology, biogeography, and the natural history of tree species. Course work includes field identification of woody plants, and phylogenetic systematics as the structure for understanding the evolutionary history and relationships between species. SC
* EVST 237a / ENGL 237a, Animals in Literature and Theory Jonathan Kramnick
Consideration of the role animals play in our aesthetic, ethical, political, and scientific worlds through reading of fiction, poetry, philosophy, and critical theory. Topics include: animal sentience and experience; vegetarianism; animal fables; pet keeping; animals alongside disability, race, and gender; and the representation of animal life in the visual arts. WR, HU
EVST 242a, Ecosystems and Landscapes Mark Bradford
Introduction to concepts in ecosystem and landscape ecology. Topics include element cycling, food web interactions, species-area relationships, whole system metabolism, and models of biodiversity. Understanding of ecological patterns and processes at multiple scales in order to study, manage, and conserve species and ecosystems. SC
* EVST 242La, Laboratory for Ecosystems and Landscapes Mark Bradford
* EVST 247b / EP&E 497b / PLSC 219b, Politics of the Environment Peter Swenson
Historical and contemporary politics aimed at regulating human behavior to limit damage to the environment. Goals, strategies, successes, and failures of movements, organizations, corporations, scientists, and politicians in conflicts over environmental policy. Focus on politics in the U.S., including the role of public opinion; attention to international regulatory efforts, especially with regard to climate change. SO
* EVST 258b / AMST 258b, Wilderness in the North American Imagination Adrián Lerner Patrón
The idea of wilderness in American history, art, literature, and public policy. Authors include Henry David Thoreau, Nathaniel Hawthorne, John Muir, Aldo Leopold, John McPhee, and Ramachandra Guha. A class dinner and field trip are held during the term. HU
* EVST 261a / F&ES 261a / G&G 261a, Minerals and Human Health Ruth Blake
Study of the interrelationships between Earth materials and processes and personal and public health. The transposition from the environment of the chemical elements essential for life. After one year of college-level chemistry or with permission of instructor; G&G 110 recommended. SC
EVST 265b / G&G 255b, Environmental Geomicrobiology Ruth Blake
Microbial diversity in natural geologic habitats and the role of microorganisms in major biogeochemical cycles. Introduction to prokaryote physiology and metabolic diversity; enrichment culture and molecular methods in geomicrobiology. Prerequisite: college-level chemistry. SC
EVST 273b, Ecology and the Future of Life on Earth Oswald Schmitz
Study of sustainability in a new epoch of human domination of Earth, known as the Anthropocene. Students will learn to think critically and construct arguments about the ecological and evolutionary interrelationship between humans and nature and gain insight on how to combine ethical reasoning with scientific principles, to ensure that species and ecosystems will thrive and persist. SC
* EVST 277b / F&ES 277b, Environmental Science and Policy Mark Bradford
The synthesis of science, both for scientists and for policy makers. Usefulness of the two types of synthesis for developing scientific research and policy. Advancement of complementary practices between science and policy arenas. Concepts and data from ecological and biogeochemical disciplines are used to predict and manage the effects of environmental change on ecosystem services that underlie the provisioning of resources such as food and clean water. SO
* EVST 287b / ER&M 287b / HSAR 458b, Visual Culture of the National Parks Monica Bravo
How the visual culture of the national parks creates, supports, and narrates a particular vision of U.S. national identity at distinct historical moments. Topics include the growth of railroads and the highway system; the beginning of the environmental movement; and the development and popularization of photography. Careful readings of primary and secondary accounts, close analysis of advertisements, collections, films, maps, paintings, photographs, posters, videos, and other artifacts of visual culture related to the national parks. HU
* EVST 290b / F&ES 290b, Geographic Information Systems Charles Tomlin
A practical introduction to the nature and use of geographic information systems (GIS) in environmental science and management. Applied techniques for the acquisition, creation, storage, management, visualization, animation, transformation, analysis, and synthesis of cartographic data in digital form.
EVST 292a / GLBL 217a / PLSC 149a, Sustainability in the Twenty-First Century Daniel Esty
Sustainability as a guiding concept for addressing twenty-first century tensions between economic, environmental, and social progress. Using a cross-disciplinary set of materials from the “sustainability canon,” students explore the interlocking challenges of providing abundant energy, reducing pollution, addressing climate change, conserving natural resources, and mitigating the other impacts of economic development. SO
* EVST 294a / HUMS 294a / RSEE 355a / RUSS 355a, Ecology and Russian Culture Molly Brunson
Interdisciplinary study of Russian literature, film, and art from the nineteenth to the twenty-first centuries, organized into four units—forest, farm, labor, and disaster. Topics include: perception and representation of nature; deforestation and human habitation; politics and culture of land-ownership; leisure, labor, and forced labor; modernity and industrialization; and nuclear technologies and disasters. Analysis of short stories, novels, and supplementary readings on ecocriticism and environmental humanities, as well as films, paintings, and visual materials. Several course meetings take place at the Yale Farm. Readings and discussions in English. HU
* EVST 304a / AMST 348a, Space, Place, and Landscape Laura Barraclough
Survey of core concepts in cultural geography and spatial theory. Ways in which the organization, use, and representation of physical spaces produce power dynamics related to colonialism, race, gender, class, and migrant status. Multiple meanings of home; the politics of place names; effects of tourism; the aesthetics and politics of map making; spatial strategies of conquest. Includes field projects in New Haven. SO
* EVST 311a / G&G 331a, Environmental Communication for Public Engagement & Policy Paul Lussier
Analysis, assessment, and application of narrative strategies to the communication of climate and energy science toward public policy engagement and action. Emerging interdisciplinary theory and research in narratology, sociology, and psychology, as well as cultural, education, and media sciences. SO
* EVST 344b / F&ES 344b, Aquatic Chemistry Gaboury Benoit
A detailed examination of the principles governing chemical reactions in water. Emphasis on developing the ability to predict the aqueous chemistry of natural, engineered, and perturbed systems based on a knowledge of their biogeochemical setting. Calculation of quantitative solutions to chemical equilibria. Focus on inorganic chemistry. Topics include elementary thermodynamics, acid-base equilibria, alkalinity, speciation, solubility, mineral stability, redox chemistry, and surface complexation reactions. SC
* EVST 348b, Yellowstone and Global Change Susan Clark
Introduction to sustainability issues in natural resource management and policy, using the Greater Yellowstone ecosystem as a case study. Topics include large carnivores, wildlife conservation, parks, energy, and transportation. Priority to Environmental Studies majors.
* EVST 352a / AMST 304a, Food and Documentary Ian Cheney
Survey of contemporary public debates and current scientific thinking about how America farms and eats explored through the medium of documentary film. Includes a brief history of early food and agrarian documentaries, with a focus on twenty-first century films that consider sustainable food. HU
W 2:30pm-4:20pm, T 7pm-9pm
* EVST 362b / ARCG 362b / G&G 362b, Observing Earth from Space Ronald Smith
A practical introduction to satellite image analysis of Earth's surface. Topics include the spectrum of electromagnetic radiation, satellite-borne radiometers, data transmission and storage, computer image analysis, the merging of satellite imagery with GIS and applications to weather and climate, oceanography, surficial geology, ecology and epidemiology, forestry, agriculture, archaeology, and watershed management. Prerequisites: college-level physics or chemistry, two courses in geology and natural science of the environment or equivalents, and computer literacy. QR, SC
EVST 366b / AMST 364b / FILM 423b, Documentary and the Environment Charles Musser
Survey of documentaries about environmental issues, with a focus on Darwin's Nightmare (2004), An Inconvenient Truth (2006), Food, Inc. (2009), GasLand (2010), and related films. Brief historical overview, from early films such as The River (1937) to the proliferation of environmental film festivals. HU RP
TTh 11:35am-12:50pm, W 7pm-10pm
* EVST 399a / ANTH 478a / ARCG 399a / NELC 399a, Agriculture: Origins, Evolution, Crises Harvey Weiss
Analysis of the societal and environmental drivers and effects of plant and animal domestication, the intensification of agroproduction, and the crises of agroproduction: land degradation, societal collapses, sociopolitical transformation, sustainablity, and biodiversity. SO
* EVST 400b / E&EB 275b, Biological Oceanography Mary Beth Decker
Exploration of a range of coastal and pelagic ecosystems. Relationships between biological systems and the physical processes that control the movements of water and productivity of marine systems. Anthropogenic impacts on oceans, such as the effects of fishing and climate change. Includes three Friday field trips. Enrollment limited to 15. SC
* EVST 415b / BENG 405b, Biotechnology and the Developing World Anjelica Gonzalez
Study of technological advances that have global health applications. Ways in which biotechnology has enhanced quality of life in the developing world. The challenges of implementing relevant technologies in resource-limited environments, including technical, practical, social, and ethical aspects. Prerequisite: MCDB 120, or BIOL 101 and 102.
* EVST 422a / ANTH 409a / ER&M 394a / F&ES 422a, Climate and Society from Past to Present Michael Dove
Discussion of the major traditions of thought—both historic and contemporary—regarding climate, climate change, and society; focusing on the politics of knowledge and belief vs disbelief; and drawing on the social sciences and anthropology in particular. SO
* EVST 424a / ANTH 406a / PLSC 420a, Rivers: Nature and Politics James Scott
The natural history of rivers and river systems and the politics surrounding the efforts of states to manage and engineer them. SO
* EVST 463a and EVST 464b / AMST 463a and AMST 464b / FILM 455a and FILM 456b, Documentary Film Workshop Charles Musser
A yearlong workshop designed primarily for majors in Film and Media Studies or American Studies who are making documentaries as senior projects. Seniors in other majors admitted as space permits. RP
W 10:30am-1:20pm, T 7pm-10pm
* EVST 473b / ANTH 473b / ARCG 473b / NELC 473, Abrupt Climate Change and Societal Collapse Harvey Weiss
The coincidence of societal collapses throughout history with decadal and century-scale drought events. Challenges to anthropological and historical paradigms of cultural adaptation and resilience. Examination of archaeological and historical records and high-resolution sets of paleoclimate proxies. HU, SO
* EVST 496a or b, Senior Research Project and Colloquium Staff
Independent research under the supervision of members of the faculty, resulting in a senior essay. Students meet with peers and faculty members regularly throughout the fall term to discuss the progress of their research. Projects should offer substantial opportunity for interdisciplinary work on environmental problems. Students typically complete a two-term senior essay, but students completing the requirements of two majors may consider a one-term senior project.