Ethics, Politics, and Economics
In an era of global interdependence and rapid technological change, we need to think practically about the institutional dynamics of power and governance. We have to understand the technical complexities of economic and statistical analysis at the same time that we think critically about basic moral and political choices. Constructive responses to such problems as coping with natural and social hazards, allocation of limited social resources (e.g., medical care), or morally sensitive political issues (e.g., affirmative action and war crimes) require close knowledge of their political, economic, and social dimensions, and a capacity to think rigorously about the basic questions they raise.
The major in Ethics, Politics, and Economics joins the analytic rigor of the social sciences and the enduring normative questions of philosophy to promote an integrative and critical understanding of the institutions, practices, and policies that shape the contemporary world.
Requirements of the Major
Requirements of the major for the Class of 2018 and Class of 2019 With DUS approval, the following changes to the requirements of the major may be fulfilled by students who declared their major under previous requirements.
Requirements of the major for the Class of 2020 and subsequent classes All students majoring in Ethics, Politics, and Economics must take twelve term courses, including five introductory courses, three core courses (one of which must be an advanced seminar), and four concentration area courses, which comprise a student's individual area of concentration. The concentration is developed in consultation with the director of undergraduate studies and should culminate in a senior essay written in the area defined by the concentration.
Introductory courses Introductory courses provide a basic familiarity with contemporary economic analysis and survey central issues in ethics and political philosophy. Such a background is necessary to understand theories that combine different approaches to the three areas of inquiry and to assess policies with complex political, economic, and moral implications.
The introductory courses include one course from each of the following five topics: game theory; political philosophy; ethics; intermediate microeconomics; and econometrics, and in particular ECON 131, or its equivalent (ECON 135, SOCY 162, GLBL 121, S&DS 230, or S&DS 238).
Core courses The major requires that students take three core courses, EP&E 215 and two additional core courses from the major’s three core areas, one of which must be an advanced seminar anchored in at least two of the major’s three core areas of ethics, politics, or economics. The DUS can offer guidance regarding appropriate courses to fulfill this requirement.
The Ethics core draws from courses on normative thinking from philosophy and political science (theory only), or from EP&E courses with Philosophy or Political Science listed as secondary departments.
The Politics core includes courses offered by Political Science as the primary department, or EP&E courses with Political Science listed as the secondary department.
The Economics core comprises courses offered by Economics as the primary department, or Political Science courses cross-listed with Economics.
Areas of concentration Each student defines an area of concentration in consultation with the DUS. The concentration enables students to frame an important problem and shape a systematic course of inquiry, employing analytical methods and substantive theories drawn from the three fields. Students should not only recognize the accomplishments of varied interdisciplinary efforts, but also attempt to represent and in some cases further develop those accomplishments in their own work.
For many students the concentration treats a contemporary problem with a substantial policy dimension (domestic or international), but some students may wish to emphasize philosophical and methodological issues. Areas of concentration must consist of four courses appropriate to the theme, including the seminar or independent study course in which the senior essay is written (see "Senior Requirement" below). In designing the area of concentration, students are encouraged to include seminars from other departments and programs. The DUS will also require students to show adequate competence in data analysis when the area of concentration requires it.
The following are examples of possible areas of concentration: distributive justice; government regulation of market economies; environmental policy; philosophy of law; gender relations; democracy and multiculturalism; contemporary approaches to public policy; war and coercion; war crimes and crimes against humanity; medical ethics; international political economy; philosophy of the social sciences; social theory and ethics; cultural analysis and political thought; and civil society and its normative implications. However, students may wish to frame their own concentration more precisely.
Credit/D/Fail Students admitted to the major may take one of their Ethics, Politics, and Economics courses Credit/D/Fail. Such courses count as non-A grades in calculations for Distinction in the Major.
A senior essay is required for the major and should constitute an intellectual culmination of the student's work in Ethics, Politics, and Economics. The essay should fall within the student's area of concentration and may be written within a relevant seminar, with the consent of the instructor and approval of the DUS. If no appropriate seminar is offered in which the essay might be written, the student may instead enroll in EP&E 491 with approval of the DUS and a faculty member who will supervise the essay. Students who wish to undertake a more substantial yearlong essay may enroll in EP&E 492, 493.
The senior essay reflects more extensive research than an ordinary Yale College seminar paper and employs a method of research appropriate to its topic. Some papers might be written entirely from library sources; others may employ field interviews and direct observation; still others may require statistical or econometric analysis. The student should consult frequently with the seminar instructor or adviser, offering partial and preliminary drafts for criticism. Students are encouraged to incorporate analysis using the tools of all three of the major’s fields.
Senior essays written in the fall term are due on Monday, December 4, 2017. Senior essays written in the spring term and yearlong essays are due on Monday, April 16, 2018. One-term essays are normally expected to be forty to fifty pages in length; yearlong essays are normally expected to be eighty to one hundred pages in length.
Advising and Application to the Major
Application to the major Students apply to enter the major at the end of the fall term of their sophomore year. Applications must be submitted via email to the program's registrar at firstname.lastname@example.org no later than 4 p.m. on Friday, December 1, 2017. Applications must include the application cover sheet, a transcript of work at Yale that indicates fall-term 2017 courses, and a brief application essay, all submitted in a single PDF file. If possible, applicants should include a copy of a paper written for a course related to the subject matter of Ethics, Politics, and Economics. More information regarding the application process and the cover sheet is available on the program's website.
Graduate work Some graduate and professional school courses are open to qualified undergraduates and may be of interest to EP&E majors, (e.g., courses in the Schools of Nursing, Forestry & Environmental Studies, Management, and Public Health). Permission to enroll is required from the instructor as well as the appropriate representative of the graduate or professional program. Note that not all professional school courses yield a full course credit in Yale College. See Courses in the Yale Graduate and Professional Schools in the Academic Regulations.
REQUIREMENTS OF THE MAJOR
Number of courses 12 (incl senior req)
Distribution of courses 1 introductory course in political phil, game theory, ethics, intermediate microeconomics, and econometrics (ECON 131), as specified; 3 core courses (incl 1 advanced sem); 4 courses, incl course for senior req, in area of concentration defined by student in consultation with DUS
FACULTY ASSOCIATED WITH THE PROGRAM OF ETHICS, POLITICS, AND ECONOMICS
Professors Seyla Benhabib (Political Science, Philosophy), Dirk Bergemann (Economics), Donald Brown (Economics), David Cameron (Political Science), Stephen Darwall (Philosophy), Ron Eyerman (Sociology), Bryan Garsten (Political Science), Jacob Hacker (Political Science), Jolyon Howorth (Visiting) (Political Science), Shelly Kagan (Philosophy), Joseph LaPalombara (Emeritus) (Political Science), Giovanni Maggi (Economics), William Nordhaus (Economics), Thomas Pogge (Philosophy), Douglas Rae (Political Science), John Roemer (Political Science), Susan Rose-Ackerman (Political Science, Law School), Frances Rosenbluth (Director)(Political Science), Andrew Sabl (Visiting), Ian Shapiro (Political Science), Peter Swenson (Political Science), Steven Wilkinson (Political Science)
Senior Lecturer Boris Kapustin (Political Science)
Lecturers Elaine Dezenski (Global Studies), Michael Fotos (Political Science), Karen Goodrow (Political Science), Stephen Latham (Political Science)
EP&E 203a / PLSC 452a / S&DS 102a, Introduction to Statistics: Political Science Jonathan Reuning-Scherer and Kelly Rader
Statistical analysis of politics, elections, and political psychology. Problems presented with reference to a wide array of examples: public opinion, campaign finance, racially motivated crime, and public policy. QR
EP&E 204a / ENAS 335a, Professional Ethics Mercedes Carreras
A theoretical and case-oriented approach to ethical decision making. Concepts, tools, and methods for constructing and justifying solutions to moral problems that students may face as professionals. SO
EP&E 209a / PLSC 453a / S&DS 103a, Introduction to Statistics: Social Sciences Jonathan Reuning-Scherer
Descriptive and inferential statistics applied to analysis of data from the social sciences. Introduction of concepts and skills for understanding and conducting quantitative research. QR
* EP&E 215a or b, Classics of Ethics, Politics, and Economics Staff
A critical examination of classic and contemporary works that treat problems of ethics, politics, and economics as unities. Topics include changing conceptions of private and public spheres, the content and domain of individual freedom, and ethical and political limits to the market. Readings from the works of Aristotle, Hobbes, Locke, Smith, Bentham, Mill, Hegel, Marx, Hayek, Rawls, and others. HU, SO
* EP&E 221b / ECON 457b, Economics, Politics, and History: Institutional Design and Institutional Change Jose-Antonio Espin-Sanchez
The efficiency and distributive consequences of institutions' governing of human relationships. Efficiency concerns with the size of the "pie"; ways in which different institutions generate a bigger "pie" than others. Distribution concerns with who gets a bigger piece of the "pie." Why "bad" institutions persist over time; what can be done to change from bad/old institutions to good/new institutions. Prerequisites: intermediate micro- or macroeconomics, and a course in statistics and probability. SO
* EP&E 224a / ECON 465a / GLBL 330a, Debating Globalization Ernesto Zedillo
Facets of contemporary economic globalization, including trade, investment, and migration. Challenges and threats of globalization: inclusion and inequality, emerging global players, global governance, climate change, and nuclear weapons proliferation. Prerequisite: background in international economics and data analysis. Preference to seniors majoring in Economics or EP&E. SO RP
* EP&E 232b / ECON 470b / GLBL 233b, Strategies for Economic Development Rakesh Mohan
How strategies for economic development have changed over time and how dominant strands in development theory and practice have evolved. Students trace the influence of the evolution in thinking on actual changes that have taken place in successful development strategies, as practiced in fast growing developing countries, and as illustrated in case studies of fast growth periods in Japan, South Korea, Brazil, China, and India. Prerequisites: introductory microeconomics and macroeconomics.
* EP&E 234a / AFST 234a, Market Liberalism, Socialist Planning, and Ideas of Development Nicoli Nattrass
Exploration of market liberalism, socialist planning, and contestation over the role of the state in the idea of development. Study of key classical economists; Marxism and Utopian socialism; how collectivisation was applied in the Soviet Union and in the African context; and discussion of the rise of development economics, highlighting the work of W. Arthur Lewis and Amartya Sen. Prerequisite: ECON 110 or 115, or permission of the instructor. SO
* EP&E 235b / PHIL 457b / PLSC 283b, Recent Work on Justice Thomas Pogge
In-depth study of one contemporary book, author, or debate in political philosophy, political theory, or normative economics. Focus varies from year to year based on student interest and may include a ground-breaking new book, the life's work of a prominent author, or an important theme in contemporary political thought. HU
* EP&E 240a / GLBL 333a / PLSC 428a, Comparative Welfare Policy in Developing Countries Jeremy Seekings
Examination of public and private welfare systems in the developing world. Analysis of the evolving relationships between kin or community and states and market. Particular attention to the politics of contemporary reforms. SO
* EP&E 242b / PLSC 372b, Politics and Markets Peter Swenson
Examination of the interplay between market and political processes in different substantive realms, time periods, and countries. Inquiry into the developmental relationship between capitalism and democracy and the functional relationships between the two. Investigation of the politics of regulation in areas such as property rights, social security, international finance, and product, labor, and service markets. Topics include the economic motives of interest groups and coalitions in the political process. SO
* EP&E 245a / EP&E 449 / PLSC 152a, Global Firms and National Governments Joseph LaPalombara
Interactions between large-scale firms that make international investments and policy makers and government officials in the “host” countries. National and subnational officials who work to attract investments (or not) and who set policies regulating global firms and their investments. Focus on less-developed countries. Theories as to why firms “globalize”; case studies of controversies created by overseas corporate investments; the changing economic landscape associated with investments by countries such as China, Brazil, and India. SO
* EP&E 248b / PLSC 256b, American Political Institutions Michael Fotos
The origins and development of American political institutions, especially in relation to how institutions shape the policy process. Issues of temporality, policy feedback, and policy substance. SO
EPE: PoliticalSystems Core
* EP&E 250a / PLSC 354a, The European Union David Cameron
Origins and development of the European Community and Union over the past fifty years; ways in which the often-conflicting ambitions of its member states have shaped the EU; relations between member states and the EU's supranational institutions and politics; and economic, political, and geopolitical challenges. SO
* EP&E 254a / ECON 454a / GLBL 331a, Evolution of Central Banking Rakesh Mohan
Changes in the contours of policy making by central banks since the turn of the twentieth century. Theoretical and policy perspectives as well as empirical debates in central banking. The recurrence of financial crises in market economies. Monetary policies that led to economic stability in the period prior to the collapse of 2007–2008. Changes in Monetary Policies since the Great Financial Crisis. Prerequisite: ECON 122. SO
* EP&E 259a / PLSC 183a, Europe, the United States, and the Iraq Crisis Jolyon Howorth
Examination of the contrasting relations between the main European powers and the United States in their approaches to Iraq in order to understand the divisions attending the 2003 war and the subsequent transfer of sovereignty. Topics include the Iran-Iraq War (1980–88), the first Persian Gulf crisis (1990–91), the sanctions regime (1991–2002), problems of peacekeeping and nation building, and the Obama exit strategy. SO
* EP&E 264a / GMAN 318a / PHIL 323a / PLSC 323a, Exile, Statelessness, Migration Seyla Benhabib
An interdisciplinary examination of exile, statelessness, and migration. Consideration of the meaning of exile as opposed to migration or banishment; whether a stateless person is also in exile, how the theme of exile is rooted in the Jewish condition of “Galut;” and how these conditions throw light on democratic societies. Authors include Hannah Arendt, Judith Shklar, Judith Butler, and contemporary authors such as Linda Zerilli and Bonnie Honig. Prerequisites: strong background in political philosophy, 19th or 20th century intellectual history, literary studies, or permission of the instructor. HU, SO
* EP&E 267a / SOCY 216a / WGSS 314a, Social Movements Ron Eyerman
An introduction to sociological perspectives on social movements and collective action, exploring civil rights, student movements, global justice, nationalism, and radical fundamentalism. SO
* EP&E 269a / EAST 408a / SOCY 395a, Wealth and Poverty in Modern China Deborah Davis
The underlying causes and consequences of the changing distribution of income, material assets, and political power in contemporary China. Substantive focus on inequality and stratification. Instruction in the use of online Chinese resources relevant to research. Optional weekly Chinese language discussions. Prerequisite: a previous course on China since 1949. SO
* EP&E 286a / ECON 475a, Discrimination in Law, Theory, and Practice Gerald Jaynes
How law and economic theory define and conceptualize economic discrimination; whether economic models adequately describe behaviors of discriminators as documented in court cases and government hearings; the extent to which economic theory and econometric techniques aid our understanding of actual marketplace discrimination. Prerequisites: introductory microeconomics and at least one additional course in Economics, African American Studies, Ethnicity, Race, and Migration, or Women's, Gender, and Sexuality Studies.
* EP&E 287a / PLSC 288a, Liberty in Politics, Markets, and Society Andrew Sabl
Key questions regarding liberty explored through critical examination of classic texts by Locke, Montesquieu, Smith, Tocqueville, and Mill. The definition, origins, and foundations of liberty; whether liberty in some realms might require the restriction of freedom in others. SO
* EP&E 297b / ECON 471b, Topics in Cooperative Game Theory Pradeep Dubey
The theory and applications of cooperative games. Topics include matching, bargaining, cost allocation, market games, voting games, and games on networks. Prerequisite: intermediate microeconomics.
* EP&E 298a / ECON 481a, Empirical Microeconomics Jessica Reyes
Introduction to empirical microeconomics and its methodologies. Academic research in the field explored using tools from economic theory and econometrics. Topics include approaches to identification, environmental effects on health, and the economics of crime, gender, and race. Prerequisites: intermediate microeconomics and econometrics. SO
* EP&E 310b / PLSC 227b, Refugee Law and Policy Tally Kritzman-Amir
Controversies and challenges in U.S. and international refugee law and policy, with a focus on asylum law and practice in the United States. Emphasis on legal reasoning and analysis through close reading of statutes, regulations, and case law. Final project is a legal brief on behalf of a client. SO
EPE: Advanced Seminar
* EP&E 312a / PLSC 297a, Moral Choices in Politics Boris Kapustin
A study of how and why people make costly moral choices in politics. Figures studied include Thomas More, Abraham Lincoln, Nelson Mandela, Václav Havel, and Aung San Suu Kyi. SO
EPE: Advanced Seminar
* EP&E 324a / PLSC 244a, Journalism, Liberalism, Democracy James Sleeper
The news media's role in configuring the democratic public sphere, from the early synergy of print capitalism and liberalism through the corporate consolidation of mass media and the recent fragmentation and fluidity of "news." Classical-humanist and civic-republican responses to these trends. SO
* EP&E 334b / PHIL 455b, Normative Ethics Shelly Kagan
A systematic examination of normative ethics, the part of moral philosophy that attempts to articulate and defend the basic principles of morality. The course surveys and explores some of the main normative factors relevant in determining the moral status of a given act or policy (features that help make a given act right or wrong). Brief consideration of some of the main views about the foundations of normative ethics (the ultimate basis or ground for the various moral principles). Prerequisite: a course in moral philosophy. HU
EPE: Advanced Seminar
* EP&E 337a / PLSC 231a, Interest Groups, Money, and Influence in American Politics Ian Turner
Study of the role of money in politics and how is it used to influence public policy. Topics include campaign finance, lobbying, and interest group formation and maintenance. SO
EPE: Advanced Seminar
* EP&E 352a / GLBL 213a / PLSC 348a, Democratization Milan Svolik
Scientific study of the processes, causes, and consequences of democratization and how to apply insights gained from such study to evaluate public policy discourse. Topics include the emergence of modern democracy in the nineteenth century; the rise of fascism in inter-war Europe; the breakdown of democracy in Latin America; the collapse of communism and the resurgence of authoritarianism in Eastern Europe; and the Arab Spring and its aftermath. SO
* EP&E 353b / PLSC 305b, Critique of Political Violence Boris Kapustin
Methods of conceptualizing political violence that are prevalent in contemporary political philosophical discourse. Use of theoretical-analytical tools to examine the modes violence assumes and the functions it performs in modern political life as well as the meanings and possibilities of nonviolence in politics. SO
EPE: Advanced Seminar
* EP&E 380a / PLSC 313a, Bioethics, Politics, and Economics Stephen Latham
Ethical, political, and economic aspects of a number of contemporary issues in biomedical ethics. Topics include abortion, assisted reproduction, end-of-life care, research on human subjects, and stem cell research. SO
* EP&E 390a / EVST 212a / PLSC 212a, Democracy and Sustainability Michael Fotos
Democracy, liberty, and the sustainable use of natural resources. Concepts include institutional analysis, democratic consent, property rights, market failure, and common pool resources. Topics of policy substance are related to human use of the environment and to U.S. and global political institutions. WR, SO
EPE: Advanced Seminar
* EP&E 411a / PLSC 287a, Democracy and Distribution Ian Shapiro
An examination of relations between democracy and the distribution of income and wealth. Focus on ways in which different classes and coalitions affect, and are affected by, democratic distributive politics. Open to juniors and seniors. SO
EPE: Advanced Seminar
* EP&E 421a or b / PLSC 320a or b, Ethics, Law, and Current Issues Karen Goodrow
Examination of how freedom of speech and bias influence the criminal justice system, focusing on wrongful convictions and administration of the death penalty. Understanding the role of potential bias at various levels and the competing interests of protecting speech, due process, and the innocent. Topics include limitations on speech, practical effects of speech, the efficacy of the death penalty, actual innocence, gender/race/economic bias and its effects on the justice system, as well as best practices for improving our sense of justice.
* EP&E 470a / AFST 470a / ECON 469a / GLBL 325a, Health Inequality and Development Nicoli Nattrass
Economic analysis of the interactions between health, inequality, and development. Growth and development; health and well-being; burden of disease and funding for health; the relationship between growth and health; international health policy. Prerequisite: introductory microeconomics and macroeconomics. SO
* EP&E 477b / SOCY 321b, Sociology of Markets Staff
The role of culture and politics in shaping markets. Links between social networks and employment discrimination, religion and wealth, social relationships and financial troubles, and culture and industry. The moral dimensions of selling organs and intimacy. WR, SO
* EP&E 478a / PHIL 450a, The Problem of Evil Keith DeRose
The challenge that evil's existence in the world poses for belief in a perfectly good and omnipotent God. The main formulations of the problem of evil; proposed ways of solving or mitigating the problem and criticism of those solutions. Skeptical theism, the free-will defense, soul-making theodicies, and doctrines of hell. HU
* EP&E 479a / PHIL 454a, The Moral Theories of Moore and Ross Shelly Kagan
An examination of two of the most important works of moral philosophy of the twentieth century, Principia Ethica by G. E. Moore and The Right and the Good by W. D. Ross. HU
* EP&E 487a / GMAN 212a / HUMS 261a / PHIL 417a, Critical Theory and the Frankfurt School Asaf Angermann
Introduction to the thought and writings of the philosophers known as the Frankfurt School, who founded and developed the idea of Critical Theory. The method of Critical Theory as a way of thinking about the complex relations between philosophy and society, culture and politics, and philosophical concepts and social reality. The meaning of concepts such as critique, history, freedom, individuality, emancipation, and aesthetic experience. HU
* EP&E 491a, The Senior Essay Peter Swenson
A one-term senior essay. The essay should fall within the student's area of concentration. If no appropriate seminar is offered in which the essay might be written, the student, in consultation with the director of undergraduate studies, should choose an appropriate member of the faculty to supervise the senior essay. Students must obtain the signature of the faculty member supervising their independent work on an Independent Study Form (available from the Ethics, Politics, and Economics registrar's office). This form must be submitted to the director of undergraduate studies at the time the student's class schedule is submitted.
* EP&E 492a and EP&E 493b, The Yearlong Senior Essay Peter Swenson
A two-term senior essay. The essay should fall within the student's area of concentration. The student, in consultation with the director of undergraduate studies, should choose an appropriate member of the faculty to supervise the senior essay. Students must obtain the signature of the faculty member supervising their independent work on an Independent Study Form (available from the Ethics, Politics, and Economics registrar's office). This form must be submitted to the director of undergraduate studies at the time the student's class schedule is submitted.
EP&E 494b / AFAM 198b / CGSC 277b / EDST 177b / PHIL 177b, Propaganda, Ideology, and Democracy Jason Stanley
Historical, philosophical, psychological, and linguistic introduction to the issues and challenges that propaganda raises for liberal democracy. How propaganda can work to undermine democracy; ways in which schools and the press are implicated; the use of propaganda by social movements to address democracy's deficiencies; the legitimacy of propaganda in cases of political crisis. HU
* EP&E 496a / PLSC 448a, Business and Government after Communism Ian Shapiro
Reassessment of business's place in society—and its relations with government—in an era when alternatives to capitalism are moribund. Topics include the role of business in regime change, corruption and attempts to combat it, business and the provision of low income housing and social services, and privatization of such core functions of government as prisons, the military, and local public services. Prerequisites: three courses in political science. SO
* EP&E 497b / EVST 247b / PLSC 219b, Politics of the Environment Peter Swenson
Historical and contemporary politics aimed at regulating human behavior to limit damage to the environment. Goals, strategies, successes, and failures of movements, organizations, corporations, scientists, and politicians in conflicts over environmental policy. Focus on politics in the U.S., including the role of public opinion; attention to international regulatory efforts, especially with regard to climate change. SO
* EP&E 499a / AFST 400a / PLSC 401a, Democratic Politics and Public Policy in Contemporary Africa Jeremy Seekings
Examination of how the resurgence of competitive, multi-party elections in Africa has reinfused democratic governance and transformed the process of public policy-making. Emphasis on the political landscape of public opinion and voting behavior; elections and political parties; the state and governance; as well as policy-making, with focus on economic and social policies. SO
Other Courses Related to Ethics, Politics, and Economics
PHIL 175a, Introduction to Ethics Shelly Kagan
What makes one act right and another wrong? What am I morally required to do for others? What is the basis of morality? These are some of the questions raised in moral philosophy. Examination of two of the most important answers, the theories of Mill and Kant, with brief consideration of the views of Hume and Hobbes. Discussion of the question: Why be moral? HU
EPE: Intro Ethics
PLSC 114a, Introduction to Political Philosophy Hélène Landemore
Fundamental issues in contemporary politics investigated through reflection on classic texts in the history of political thought. Emphasis on topics linked to modern constitutional democracies, including executive power, representation, and political parties. Readings from Plato, Machiavelli, Hobbes, Locke, Rousseau, Madison and Hamilton, Lincoln, and Tocqueville, in addition to recent articles on contemporary issues. SO
EPE: Intro Political Phil
PLSC 118b, The Moral Foundations of Politics Ian Shapiro
An introduction to contemporary discussions about the foundations of political argument. Emphasis on the relations between political theory and policy debate (e.g., social welfare provision and affirmative action). Readings from Bentham, Mill, Marx, Burke, Rawls, Nozick, and others. SO
EPE: Intro Political Phil