History of Art

Director of undergraduate studies: Kishwar Rizvi, 652, 203 432-5803, kishwar.rizvi@yale.edu; arthistory.yale.edu

FACULTY OF THE DEPARTMENT OF HISTORY OF ART

Professors Carol Armstrong, Tim Barringer, Edward Cooke, Jr., Diana Kleiner, Kobena Mercer, Amy Meyers (Adjunct), Mary Miller, Robert Nelson, Jock Reynolds (Adjunct), Vincent Scully, Nicola Suthor, Robert Thompson, Mimi Yiengpruksawan

Associate Professors Milette Gaifman, Jacqueline Jung, Kishwar Rizvi

Assistant Professors Marisa Bass, Craig Buckley, Erica James, Jennifer Raab, Sebastian Zeidler

Lecturers Monica Bravo, Molly Brunson, (Affiliated Faculty), Nathan Flis, Karen Foster, Jennifer Reynolds-Kaye, Ian McClure, Mark Mitchell, Margaret Olin (Senior Research Scholar) Ruth Phillips, Barbara Plankensteiner, Daria Ricchi, David Sensabaugh, Anne Underhill

Art history is the study of all forms of art, architecture, and visual culture in their social and historical contexts. The History of Art major can serve either as a general program in the humanities or as the groundwork for more specialized training. Unless otherwise indicated, all courses in History of Art are open to all students in Yale College.

Requirements of the major Twelve course credits are required to complete the major: two introductory courses at the 100 level; four intermediate and advanced courses at the 200 and 300 levels; two seminars at the 400 level; a methods seminar, HSAR 401; two electives; and the senior essay, HSAR 499.

100-level courses are broad introductory surveys that address basic art history from a number of regional and thematic perspectives. Prospective majors are encouraged to take the surveys as early in their course of study as possible. Under certain circumstances, students who have taken the Advanced Placement test in art history may earn acceleration credit and, in consultation with the director of undergraduate studies, may place out of one 100-level course.

Intermediate and advanced courses, numbered above 200, encompass more specialized surveys and themes in art history. The major requires six courses numbered above 200, of which two must be seminars numbered above 400; the six courses must satisfy both a geographical and a chronological distributional requirement. The geographical requirement is divided into five areas: Africa and the Pacific; the Americas; Asia and the Near East; Europe; and transregional. The chronological requirement is similarly divided into five segments: earliest times to 800; 800–1500; 1500–1800; 1800 to the present; and transchronological. The six intermediate and advanced courses must be chosen from four different geographical areas and four different time periods; a single course can fulfill both a geographical and a chronological requirement.

The methods seminar HSAR 401, Critical Approaches to Art History, is a wide-ranging introduction to the practices of the art historian and the history of the discipline. It is to be taken during the fall or spring term of the junior year.

Electives may include courses from other departments if they have direct relevance to the major program of study. Approval of the director of undergraduate studies is required.

History of Art majors are urged to study foreign languages. Students considering graduate work should discuss with their advisers the appropriate language training for their field of interest.

Senior essay The senior essay is a research paper written usually in one term in HSAR 499. Students choose their own topics, which may derive from research done in an earlier course. The essay is planned during the previous term in consultation with a qualified instructor and/or with the director of undergraduate studies. It is also possible to write a two-term senior essay, with permission of the director of undergraduate studies. Students wishing to write a two-term essay must submit a petition to the director of undergraduate studies and the prospective adviser, normally by the first week after spring break of the junior year.

Credit/D/Fail courses Courses taken Credit/D/Fail may not be counted toward the requirements of the major.

Procedures The schedules of all majors must be approved and signed by the director of undergraduate studies. Students may consult the following members of the faculty about the major:

BK K. Rizvi MC to be announced
BR M. Gaifman PC D. Kleiner
CC to be announced SM S. Zeidler
DC E. Cooke SY M. Miller
ES M. Yiengpruksawan TC T. Barringer
JE T. Sears TD to be announced

Graduate courses Courses in the Graduate School are open to undergraduates with permission of the instructor and of the director of graduate studies. Course descriptions are available in the History of Art office in the Jeffrey Loria Center, 190 York Street.

REQUIREMENTS OF THE MAJOR

Prerequisites None

Number of courses 12 course credits

Distribution of courses 2 courses at 100 level; 6 courses numbered above 200, 2 of which must be 400-level seminars, fulfilling distributional requirements in 4 geographical and 4 chronological categories; 2 electives

Specific course required HSAR 401

Substitution permitted With DUS permission, 2 electives from related depts

Senior requirement Senior essay (HSAR 499)

Courses

* HSAR 009a / AFAM 008a / AFST 008a, Aesthetics and Meaning in African Arts and Cultures Erica James

The diversity of artistic production on the African continent, both historically and materially. The creative consciousness and aesthetic values of a variety of African cultures from ancient to contemporary times. Questions that arise when writing these histories without fully taking into account concepts of "African time." Enrollment limited to freshmen. Preregistration required; see under Freshman Seminar Program.  HU

* HSAR 013a / ER&M 014a, Photographing the Americas Monica Bravo

The history of photography in the Americas from its invention (or discovery) in 1839 to roughly 1940. Topics include its dissemination as both social documentation and artistic practice; image-making as mechanical rather than handmade art; assessment of the politics of deploying a new medium in a New World; and its historical and future power. Attention to questions of class, race, gender, and sexuality identity. Enrollment limited to freshmen. Preregistration required; see under Freshman Seminar Program.  HU

HSAR 110a / ARCG 110a, Introduction to the History of Art: Global Decorative Arts Edward Cooke

Global history of the decorative arts from antiquity to the present. The materials and techniques of ceramics, textiles, metals, furniture, and glass. Consideration of forms, imagery, decoration, and workmanship. Themes linking geography and time, such as trade and exchange, simulation, identity, and symbolic value.  HU

HSAR 112a, Introduction to the History of Art: Prehistory to the Renaissance Jacqueline Jung

Form as meaning in architecture, sculpture, and painting. Selected studies in these arts from prehistory to the Renaissance. Source readings in translation.  HU

HSAR 115b, Introduction to the History of Art: Renaissance to the Present Tim Barringer

Painting, sculpture, and graphic arts, with some reference to architecture. Selected major works and artists treated in terms of form, function, and historical context. Introduction to visual analysis. Special attention to contact between Europe and its others.  HU

HSAR 118a / ARCH 158a / MMES 128a / SAST 268a, Introduction to the History of Art: Islamic Architecture Kishwar Rizvi

Introduction to the architecture of the Islamic world from the seventh century to the present, encompassing regions of Asia, North Africa, and Europe. A variety of sources and media, from architecture to urbanism and from travelogues to paintings, are used in an attempt to understand the diversity and richness of Islamic architecture.  HU

HSAR 211a, Modernism and Modernity in America Jennifer Raab

Twentieth-century American art and its cultural contexts. Abstraction in painting and photography; the Harlem Renaissance and collaboration between artists and writers; public space and the politics of mural painting; pop art and the appropriation of mass media imagery; the subversion or rejection of the white-walled museum. Close analysis of works from Yale University Art Gallery collections.

HSAR 216b / AMST 217b, American Decorative Arts and Design in the Long Twentieth Century Edward Cooke

A survey of American architecture and decorative arts in the twentieth century. Examination of architecture, furniture, metals, ceramics, and glass. Topics include responses to the reforms of the Arts and Crafts movement, the introduction of modernism, the survival and revival of traditional and vernacular expressions, the rise of industrial designers, the development of studio crafts, and the varieties of postmodern expression.  HU

HSAR 219a / AMST 197a / ARCH 280a, American Architecture and Urbanism Elihu Rubin

Introduction to the study of buildings, architects, architectural styles, and urban landscapes, viewed in their economic, political, social, and cultural contexts, from precolonial times to the present. Topics include: public and private investment in the built environment; the history of housing in America; the organization of architectural practice; race, gender, ethnicity and the right to the city; the social and political nature of city building; and the transnational nature of American architecture.  HU

HSAR 221a / RUSS 220a, Russian and Soviet Art, 1757 to the Present Molly Brunson

The history of Russian and Soviet art from the foundation of the Academy of the Arts in 1757 to the present. Nineteenth-century academicism, romaticism, and realism; the Russian avant-garde and early Soviet experimentation; socialist realism and late- and post-Soviet culture. Readings and discussion in English.  HUTr

HSAR 234b / AFST 221b / ARCG 221b / NELC 120b, Egyptomania John Darnell

Conceptual underpinnings of the use of ancient Egyptian motifs in architecture, painting, sculpture, and decorative arts throughout western Europe, the Middle East, and North America from antiquity to the present.  HU

HSAR 237a / ARCG 237a / NELC 108a, Ancient Painting and Mosaics Karen Foster

Developments in wall painting, vase painting, and mosaics as seen in ancient Egypt, the Aegean Bronze Age, and the Greek, Etruscan, and Roman world.  HU

HSAR 241a / ARCG 241a / CLCV 241a / HUMS 226a, The Greek Nude and Ideals in Art Milette Gaifman

Survey of ancient Greek art, in particular, representation of the nude body from the seventh century B.C. through modernity. Masterpieces such as Discus Thrower and Venus de Milo, and Michelangelo’s David or Botticelli’s The Birth of Venus, present fundamental distinctions between naturalism, realism, and idealism and the lasting impact of the Greek nude beyond antiquity. Focus on heroic nudity, the relationship between athleticism and visual arts, how male and female bodies are treated differently, and what constitutes ideal beauty. Use of collections in the Yale University Art Gallery and the Yale Center for British Art.  HU

HSAR 247b / ARCG 161b / CLCV 161b, Art and Myth in Greek Antiquity Milette Gaifman

Visual exploration of Greek mythology through the study of ancient Greek art and architecture. Greek gods, heroes, and mythological scenes foundational to Western culture; the complex nature of Greek mythology; how art and architecture rendered myths ever present in ancient Greek daily experience; ways in which visual representations can articulate stories. Use of collections in the Yale University Art Gallery.  WR, HU

HSAR 250a / ARCG 170a / ARCG 250 / CLCV 170a, Roman Art: Empire, Identity, and Society Diana Kleiner

Masterpieces of Roman art from the Republic to Constantine studied in their historical and social contexts. The great Romans and the monuments they commissioned—portraits, triumphal arches, columns, and historical reliefs. The concept of empire and imperial identity, politics and portraiture, the making and unmaking of history through art, and the art of women, children, freedmen, and slaves.  HU

HSAR 252b / ARCG 252b / CLCV 175b, Roman Architecture Diana Kleiner

The great buildings and engineering marvels of Rome and its empire. Study of city planning and individual monuments and their decoration, including mural painting. Emphasis on developments in Rome, Pompeii, and central Italy; survey of architecture in the provinces.  HU

* HSAR 280b / FREN 347b, Ekphrasis Thomas Connolly

An exploration of ekphrasis, understood both as the verbal representation of visual representation and, more broadly, as the way in which one artistic discourse represents, critiques, or transgresses another. Manifestations of this rhetorical device in both Western and non-Western cultures from antiquity to the present. Readings and discussion in English.  HUTr

HSAR 282a, Renaissance Bodies Marisa Bass

The history of the represented body in Renaissance art from the late medieval period into the seventeenth century. Exploration of opposing and competing categories of the body in Renaissance art and scientific inquiry. Topics include medicine, reproduction, witchcraft, bodily metaphors for the artist, the gender spectrum, and the visual embodiment of everything from saintliness to sin and race to disability.  HU

HSAR 293a, Baroque Rome: Painting, Sculpture, Architecture Nicola Suthor

Analyses of masterpieces by prominent artists in baroque Rome. Caravaggio’s “baroque” differentiated from the path of the classicist artists. Works by Gian Lorenzo Bernini, who dominated the art scene in Rome as sculptor and architect half a century after Caravaggio’s death.  HU

HSAR 315a, Nineteenth-Century French Art Carol Armstrong

European art produced between the French Revolution and the beginning of the twentieth century. Focus on French painting, with additional discussion of Spanish, English, and German art. Some attention to developments in photography, printmaking, and sculpture.  HU

HSAR 323a, Early Twentieth-Century Art Sebastian Zeidler

Modern art in Europe and America, c. 1880–1945. Topics include individual artists (Rodin, Brancusi), historical avant-gardes (Dadaism, surrealism), the transformation of traditional media such as painting and sculpture, and the invention of collage and photomontage.  HU

HSAR 331b, Postwar Art in Europe and North America Sebastian Zeidler

A representative survey of art in Europe and North America between 1945 and today. Movements considered include Abstract Expressionism, Pop art, Minimalism, and Conceptual art on both sides of the Atlantic. Major topics range from the mediated image, to the postwar city, to the “white cube” exhibition space, and to the human body between imprint and medium.  HU

HSAR 332b / ARCH 262b, Modern Architecture From the Enlightenment to the Millennium Craig Buckley and Eeva-Liisa Pelkonen

Introduction to the major buildings, projects, and debates of modern architecture and urbanism from its Enlightenment origins to the present. Consideration of design methods, representational tools, and construction techniques, which have shaped architectural practice, as well as modern architects’ complex relationship with time. Study of the built environment through relevant primary texts and secondary sources. 

HSAR 353a / EAST 353a, Korean Art and Culture Youn-mi Kim

The history of Korea from ancient times to the present, with a focus on art and culture. Intersections of art, religion, and politics, as well as interaction with Chinese and Japanese cultures. The transmission of Buddhism and the formation of early Korean kingdoms; controversies regarding national identity; the premodern porcelain industry; Buddhism and Confucianism in politics and aesthetics; religion and art of the Japanese colonial period; contemporary popular culture. Includes a visit to the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York.  HU

HSAR 357a, Art and Architecture of Japan Mimi Yiengpruksawan

Survey of Japanese art and architecture from earliest times through the early nineteenth century. Introduction to paradigmatic monuments, with a focus on programmatic multimedia ensembles as found at Buddhist temples, Shinto shrines, Zen monastic enclaves, military installations and castles, vernacular living spaces, and public institutions of governance.  HU

HSAR 368b, Practices of Japanese Painting and Printmaking Mimi Yiengpruksawan

Introduction to the Japanese painting and print traditions that inform Western modernism. Definition of specific formats, approaches, styles, and transitions. Paintings and prints as artifacts and as imaginative spaces in which social and cultural meanings unfold and can be analyzed in comparative perspective.  HU

HSAR 373b / AFAM 215b, African American Art, 1963 to the Present Erica James

Modern African American artistic production explored in the context of American art and social history. Critical race theory and artistic discourse from the Spiral group in 1963, to the Black Arts Movement and the culture wars, to current readings in American and postblack art. The complicated relations between African American art and politics. Use of art objects from the Yale University Art Gallery.  HU

* HSAR 399b / HIST 176J / HSHM 407b / HUMS 220b, Collecting Nature and Art in the Preindustrial World Paola Bertucci

A history of museums before the emergence of the modern museum. Focus on: cabinets of curiosities and Wunderkammern, anatomical theaters and apothecaries' shops, alchemical workshops and theaters of machines, collections of monsters, rarities, and exotic specimens.  WR, HU

* HSAR 401a or b, Critical Approaches to Art History Staff

A wide-ranging introduction to the methods of the art historian and the history of the discipline. Themes include connoisseurship, iconography, formalism, and selected methodologies informed by contemporary theory.  WR, HU

* HSAR 402b, The Afterlife of Pre-Columbian Art Jennifer Reynolds-Kaye

After pre-Columbian objects leave their archaeological site or source community they take on a life of their own. This course examines the role that museums and political institutions have in shaping their future and how nineteenth- and twentieth-century artists engage with these “ancient” objects. Related to the Yale University Art Gallery exhibition Small-Great Objects: Anni and Josef Albers in the Americas and taught by the show curator.  HU

* HSAR 407a, Ancient American Art in the Yale University Art Gallery Mary Miller

Study of ancient American art from the collections of the Yale University Art Gallery, with a focus on Aztec, Maya, Inca, and Moche materials. The lives of specific objects from antiquity to the present; the history of the Yale collections; issues surrounding facture and forgery. Development of skills in museology.  HU

* HSAR 416a / ER&M 274a, The Mexican Cultural Renaissance, 1920–1940 Monica Bravo

Study of Mexican modern artists including Diego Rivera, Frida Kahlo, and Rufino Tamayo and the influx of foreign artists drawn to Mexico after the Revolution of the 1910s. Consideration of the relationship of art to revolution and how history works to make meaning from the past.   HU

* HSAR 424b / ARCG 424b / CLCV 230b, eClavdia: Women in Ancient Rome Diana Kleiner

The contributions of Roman women to one of the greatest cities—and one of the greatest empires—in world history. Lost stories of real-life Roman women recovered from public and residential buildings, portraits, paintings, and other works of Roman art and architecture.  HURP

* HSAR 434a, Exhibiting America’s Gilded Age Mark Mitchell

Consideration of how museums function and develop exhibitions. Discover the art of the nation’s Gilded Age, when American artists filled the grand public spaces of a new generation of civic and cultural landmarks with soaring displays of idealism and ambition, while shaping an exhibition that explores the era’s finest work and key ideas. Site visits to Yale University Art Gallery, Boston, and Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. Prerequisite: HSAR 115. Exceptions considered.   WR, HU

* HSAR 443b, Rembrandt, Painter and Storyteller Nicola Suthor and John Walsh

Exploration of Rembrandt through close examination and analysis of his work in the original. Study of the artist’s training and milieu, his development as a painter and etcher, his choice and treatment of subjects, and the connections between what he hoped to achieve and his innovative techniques. Sessions held at museums in New York City and Boston, as well as in the Yale galleries and print room.   Prerequisite: HSAR 110 or equivalent.

* HSAR 452b, Native North American Art Ruth Phillips

Introduction to regional Native North American art histories by tracing the changing ways they have been represented in the writings of early missionaries and travelers, Enlightenment writers and collectors, cultural evolutionist ethnographers, modernist art historians, and the decolonizing projects of Indigenous scholars. Extensive use of Yale collections and meetings with leading Native American curators and practitioners.  HU

* HSAR 456b / MMES 456b, Art and Politics in the Modern Middle East Kishwar Rizvi

Political ideologies have either unified the modern Middle East, such as Pan-Arabism of the 1960s and Islamism of the 1980s, or caused deep ruptures, such as Zionism and sectarianism. Examination of the art and architectural productions that have gone hand-in-hand with these political developments from the nineteenth century until present day. Poetic, visual, and urban interventions document the profound changes that have defined the countries of this region, while connecting them to political movements throughout the world.  WR, HU

* HSAR 458b / ER&M 287b, Visual Culture of the National Parks Monica Bravo

How the visual culture of the national parks creates, supports, and narrates a particular vision of U.S. national identity at distinct historical moments. Topics include the growth of railroads and the highway system; the beginning of the environmental movement; and the development and popularization of photography. Careful readings of primary and secondary accounts, close analysis of advertisements, collections, films, maps, paintings, photographs, posters, videos, and other artifacts of visual culture related to the national parks.  HU

* HSAR 459a, Italian Architecture, Art, and Design since 1945 Daria Ricchi

Investigation of the intricate relationship between Italian art, architecture, and design since the end of World War II to the present. Consideration of how these three disciplines cannot be thought of as separate, how they have changed over the second half of the century, and how they reflect and represent Italian political and cultural history.  HU

* HSAR 460a / ENGL 247a, Writing about Contemporary Figurative Art Margaret Spillane

A workshop on journalistic strategies for looking at and writing about contemporary paintings of the human figure. Practitioners and theorists of figurative painting; controversies, partisans, and opponents. Includes field trips to museums and galleries in New York City.  WR, HU

* HSAR 464b / ER&M 289b / LAST 289b, Twentieth-Century Latin American Art Monica Bravo

Survey of some of the major artistic figures, movements, and theorists associated with twentieth-century Latin American art. The historical scope begins with academic art and concludes with what might be more appropriately deemed the global contemporary. Consideration of whether there is such a thing as Latin American art.  HU

* HSAR 465b, Representing The Other in Medieval Visual Culture Jacqueline Jung

Exploration of the various ways "other people" were defined in the art, visual culture, and literature of high medieval Christian Europe. Through their depiction in religious and secular images and writings, medieval others emerge as frightening or fascinating alternatives to the fragile, idealized vision of a normative self in the age of cathedrals and Crusades.    Some knowledge of the history of medieval art and culture is encouraged but not required.  HU

* HSAR 466a, The Technical Examination of Art Ian McClure

Introduction to methods used in the technical examination of works of art, including critical assessment of the information such methods provide. What technical examination can reveal about the materials and techniques used in a particular work's creation and about its subsequent history.

* HSAR 468b / AFAM 260b / AFST 188b / ER&M 278b, The Black Atlantic Visual Tradition Robert Thompson

Introduction to key African civilizations and to important recent work in the art of Africa and the Afro-Atlantic world. Study of the art and culture of major civilizations, e.g. the Yoruba, and the continuity of their art in the New World. In-depth discussions, based on readings and weekly response papers. Study trips to Yale University Art Gallery’s newly displayed collections of African Art.  HU

* HSAR 472a / AFAM 353a, Black British Art and Culture Kobena Mercer

Introduction to black British visual artists and cultural theorists, with a focus on those of African, Caribbean, and South Asian descent. Postcolonial perspectives on diaspora identities and cross-cultural aesthetics in art, film, and photography from 1945 to the present.  HU

* HSAR 480a / EAST 470a, The Arts of Nomads in China, 900–1400 Youn-mi Kim

Visual culture of the nomadic Kitans and Mongols, ranging from gold death masks and murals excavated from tombs to religious artworks that reflect hybrid and diverse religious practices. Arts produced during the empires founded by the Liao (907–1125) and Yuan (1279–1368) located in a broad transregional context, including their role in the cultural and political landscapes of East, Central, and South Asia from the tenth century to the fifteenth.  HU

* HSAR 487b, Chinese Ceramics Staff

Introduction to Chinese ceramics from the Paleolithic period through the Qing dynasty (1644–1911). The methods of both art history and archaeology will be employed to reveal how ceramics in China developed over time. Extensive use of the Yale University Art Gallery's collection of Chinese ceramics.  HU

* HSAR 488a, Buddhist Mandalas Mimi Yiengpruksawan

Study of Buddhist mandalas, objects such as paintings, relief sculptures, sand works, engravings on stone, and textiles that represent graphically what is written in scripture. Examination of Indian, Japanese, and Tibetan mandalas and the texts on which they are based. Focus on the intersection of text and image in the material or visual representation of Buddhist discourse.  HU

* HSAR 490b / FILM 320b, Close Analysis of Film Oksana Chefranova

Ways in which traditional genres and alternative film forms establish or subvert convention and expectation and express thematic and ideological concerns. The balancing of narrative containment and excess, as well as action and image. Use of body and voice, space and music. Examples include films by Antonioni, Zhang, Ozu, and Hitchcock. Prerequisite: FILM 150.  HU

* HSAR 492a, Pop Art Sebastian Zeidler

Introduction to pop art in North America, Britain, and Germany in the late 1950s and 1960s, when painting, sculpture, and drawing opened up to the image worlds of advertising, cinema, comics, and television. Artists considered include Johns, Lichtenstein, Oldenburg, Rauschenberg, and Warhol, the Independent Group, Richter and Polke. Juniors and seniors preferred.  HU

* HSAR 493b / AMST 484b / WGSS 462b, Visual Kinship, Families, and Photography Laura Wexler and Thy Phu

Exploration of the history and practice of family photography from an interdisciplinary perspective. Study of family photographs from the analog to the digital era, from snapshots to portraits, and from instrumental images to art exhibitions. Particular attention to the ways in which family photographs have helped establish gendered and racial hierarchies and examination of recent ways of reconceiving these images.  HU

* HSAR 494b, The Visual Cultures of Japan's Samurai 1500–1700 Mimi Yiengpruksawan

Exploration of arts patronage and practices under the shoguns of the Momoyama and Edo periods, with special attention to the culture of display from armor to castles. The visual and material culture of Japan’s samurai and its significance in the early modern context.  HU

* HSAR 497a / FILM 417a, Painting and Cinema Brigitte Peucker

Examination of the relationship between painting and cinema historically, materially, conceptually, and aesthetically from the 1890s to the present. Focus on the relationship between high art and popular culture, as well as critical interrogation of medium-specificity and the materiality of the objects under study. one film or one history of art course.  HU

* HSAR 498a or b, Independent Tutorial Staff

For students who wish to pursue a subject in the history of art not otherwise covered by departmental offerings. May be used for research or directed reading under faculty supervision. A term paper or its equivalent and regular meetings with the adviser are required. To apply for admission, a student should present a prospectus and a bibliography, signed by the adviser, to the director of undergraduate studies. Enrollment limited to History of Art majors.

* HSAR 499a or b, The Senior Essay Staff

Preparation of a research paper about thirty pages long under the direction of a qualified instructor. The essay is written in either the fall or the spring term of the senior year, though preferably in the fall term. Students write on subjects of their own choice. During the term before the essay is written, students plan the project in consultation with a qualified instructor or with the director of undergraduate studies. No student is permitted to enroll in HSAR 499 without submitting a project statement, with the formal title of the essay and a brief description of the subject to be treated. The statement must be signed by the student's adviser and presented to the director of undergraduate studies before the student's schedule can be approved. The student must submit a suitable project outline and bibliography to the adviser and the director of undergraduate studies early in the term. The outline should indicate the focus and scope of the essay topic, as well as the proposed research methodology; the bibliography should be annotated. Students must also complete a library research colloquium for the senior essay. For essays submitted in the fall term, the deadline for the outline is Friday, September 16 2016; for those in the spring term, Friday, January 27 2017. Senior essays written in the fall term are due on Friday, December 9, 2016; those in the spring term on Friday, April 28, 2017. Two copies must be submitted to the director of undergraduate studies. Failure to comply with any deadline will be penalized by a lower final grade. No late essay will be considered for a prize in the department. Permission may be given to write a two-term essay after consultation with an adviser and the director of undergraduate studies. Only those who have begun to do advanced work in a given area and whose project is considered to be of exceptional promise are eligible. The requirements for the one-term senior essay apply to the two-term essay, except that the essay should be from fifty to sixty pages in length.