History of Science, Medicine, and Public Health

Director of undergraduate studies: Joanna Radin, L 214 SHM, 785-4258, joanna.radin@yale.edu; hshm.yale.edu

FACULTY ASSOCIATED WITH THE PROGRAM OF HISTORY OF SCIENCE, MEDICINE, AND PUBLIC HEALTH

Professors Daniel Kevles, Frank Snowden, William Summers, John Warner

Associate Professor Naomi Rogers

Assistant Professors Paola Bertucci, Joanna Radin, William Rankin

Senior Lecturers Bettyann Kevles, Rebecca Tannenbaum

Affiliated Faculty Toby Appel (Yale University Library), Bruno Cabanes (History), Dimitri Gutas (Near Eastern Languages & Civilizations),  Jennifer Klein (History), Joanne Meyerowitz (History), Amy Meyers (Yale Center for British Art), Alan Mikhail (History), Sherwin Nuland (School of Medicine), Kevin Repp (Yale University Library), Cynthia Russett (History), Paul Sabin (History), Gordon Shepherd (School of Medicine), Jenifer Van Vleck (History)

History of Science, Medicine, and Public Health is an interdisciplinary program of study that explores the development of science, technology, medicine, and public health and their interactions with each other and with society. Its course offerings range broadly in topics and geographical scope, including the Scientific Revolution, the relationships of medicine and the media in modern America, the development of the physical, earth, and life sciences, the interplay of science, technology, and the state, and public health and epidemics in global perspective. Students in the major combine courses in History of Science, Medicine, and Public Health with courses from other relevant disciplines in the natural sciences, the social sciences, and the humanities.

The program offers students considering a career in medicine, public health, or other health care fields a way to combine the requirements of their professional training with a broad liberal arts education. It also provides excellent preparation for many other careers, including law, business, journalism, museum work, public policy, and government, in which a contextualized understanding of science, technology, and medicine is advantageous.

The major for the Class of 2014 Students in the Class of 2014 may fulfill the requirements of the major in History of Science, History of Medicine that were in place when they entered it, as described in previous editions of this bulletin. Alternatively, they may fulfill the requirements of the major in History of Science, Medicine, and Public Health as described below for the Class of 2015 and subsequent classes.

Requirements of the major for the Class of 2015 and subsequent classes The major in History of Science, Medicine, and Public Health requires twelve term courses, including the two-term senior requirement. Students select a pathway of seven courses that guides them through an area of specialization. The seven pathway courses must include two courses in History of Science, Medicine, and Public Health; one seminar numbered 100 or above in History of Science, Medicine, and Public Health or in History; one science course; and three electives chosen from relevant courses in any department.

The five standard pathways in the major are medicine and public health; global health; science, technology, and power; gender and sexuality; and arts and media. Students may also design customized pathways in consultation with the director of undergraduate studies. No later than the beginning of the junior year, students in the major must select a standard pathway or indicate that they wish to design their own.

Beyond the seven pathway courses, students must complete three additional electives in History of Science, Medicine, and Public Health. One of the electives must be a seminar, and one must be chosen from a pathway other than the one selected for the major. All courses for the major are chosen in collaboration with the student's adviser.

Senior requirement By the end of reading period in the spring term of the junior year, students choose whether they will work toward a yearlong or a one-term senior project. Yearlong senior projects are completed in HSHM 490, 491; one-term projects are completed in HSHM 492. Students who choose a one-term project must take an additional seminar in History of Science, Medicine, and Public Health during the final term of the senior year. Distinction in the Major is awarded only to students who complete a yearlong senior project.

For both the one-term and yearlong senior projects, students select a project adviser, propose a tentative topic and title, and submit a proposal to the senior project director. The final product of the senior requirement may be a written essay or an alternative project such as a film, exhibition, catalog, atlas, or historical data reconstruction. In the case of an alternative project, the student must identify a second reader in addition to the adviser before the project is approved by the senior project director. Either the adviser or the second reader must be a member of the faculty in History of Science, Medicine, and Public Health. A written component to the senior project must illustrate sources and the intellectual significance of the project. For more details about requirements and deadlines, majors should consult the HSHM Senior Project Handbook; copies are available from the senior project director and on the program's Web site.

Credit/D/Fail Courses taken Credit/D/Fail may not be counted toward the requirements of the major.

REQUIREMENTS OF THE MAJOR

Prerequisites None

Number of courses 12 term courses (incl senior req)

Distribution of courses 7 courses in pathway, incl 2 HSHM courses, 1 sem in HSHM or Hist, 1 science course, and 3 electives; 3 addtl HSHM electives, incl 1 sem and 1 course outside major pathway

Senior requirement Yearlong project (HSHM 490, 491), or one-term project (HSHM 492) and 1 addtl HSHM sem

Courses

*HSHM 007a / HUMS 076a, Epidemics in Global Perspective William Summers

Interaction of epidemic diseases and society. The response of government, medicine, and the public to the threat or actual presence of widespread contagious diseases. The notion of major epidemics as one of the key contingencies of history, critically examined through contemporary medical, political, and literary accounts. The changing responses of societies and governments to epidemics as well as the reasons for those responses. Enrollment limited to freshmen. Preregistration required; see under Freshman Seminar Program.  HU, SO
MW 2.30–3.45 Seminar

*HSHM 008a / HUMS 075a, History of Scientific Medicine Sherwin Nuland

The development of scientific medicine traced from classical antiquity to the dawning of the modern biomedical era. Focus on the biographies of major contributors and on cultural and intellectual currents affecting discovery. Enrollment limited to freshmen. Preregistration required; see under Freshman Seminar Program.  HURP
MW 11.35–12.50 Seminar

HSHM 202aG / AMST 247aG / HIST 147aG / HLTH 170a, Media and Medicine in Modern America John Warner and Gretchen Berland

Relationships between medicine, health, and the media in the United States from 1870 to the present. The changing role of the media in shaping conceptions of the body, creating new diseases, influencing health and health policy, crafting the image of the medical profession, informing expectations of medicine and constructions of citizenship, and the medicalization of American life.  HU
TTh 10.30–11.20, 1 HTBA Lecture

HSHM 206b / AMST 176b / EVST 206b / HIST 144b / HUMS 323b, Science and Technology in the United States Daniel Kevles

The development of science and technology in American society from the colonial period through the late twentieth century. The rise of the United States to a world-class scientific and technological power; the American scientific community and the tensions it has faced in a democratic society; the role of science and technology in exploration, agriculture, industry, national defense, religion, culture, and social change.  HU
MW 11.35–12.50 Lecture

HSHM 212bG / HIST 146bG / HLTH 280b, Historical Perspectives on Global Health Joanna Radin

The broader historical context of contemporary practices, policies, and values associated with the concept of global health. Historical formations around ideas about disease, colonialism, race, gender, science, diplomacy, security, economy, and humanitarianism; ways in which these formations have shaped and been shaped by attempts to negotiate problems of health and well-being that transcend geopolitical borders.  HU
TTh 11.35–12.25, 1 HTBA Lecture

HSHM 213a / AMST 228a / HIST 137a, American Families, 1873 to the Present Ziv Eisenberg

Changes in the concept of the American family since the late nineteenth century, with a focus on the influence of scientific research, innovative technologies, and medical care and expertise. The effects of government policies, law, political ideologies, religion, markets, and media. Topics include marriage, divorce, parenthood and the parent-child relationship, adoption, pregnancy, childbirth, reproductive control, and the politics of family values.  HU
MW 11.35–12.25, 1 HTBA Lecture

HSHM 215aG / HIST 140a, Public Health in America, 1793–2000 Naomi Rogers

A survey of public health in America from the yellow fever epidemic of 1793 to AIDS and breast cancer activism at the end of the past century. Focusing on medicine and the state, topics include quarantines, failures and successes of medical and social welfare, the experiences of healers and patients, and organized medicine and its critics.  HU
MW 10.30–11.20, 1 HTBA Lecture

HSHM 235b / HIST 234b, Epidemics and Society in the West since 1600 Frank Snowden

A study of the impact of epidemic diseases such as bubonic plague, cholera, malaria, and AIDS on society, public health, and the medical profession in comparative and international perspective. Topics include popular culture and mass hysteria, the mortality revolution, urban renewal and rebuilding, sanitation, the germ theory of disease, the emergence of scientific medicine, and debates over the biomedical model of disease.  HU
3 HTBA Lecture

HSHM 242bG / HIST 193b, Molecules, Life, and Disease: Twentieth Century William Summers

The emergence of the molecular vision of life and disease in the twentieth century. Topics include the role of technology and research practices, intellectual and political migrations, science policy and philanthropic foundations, constructions of risks and patenting of life, big science and biotechnology, politics of memory, and popular representation of science. Relationships to broad intellectual, social, cultural, and political changes.  HU
MW 10.30–11.20, 1 HTBA Lecture

*HSHM 424b / HIST 155Jb, Science, Invention, and the Visual Arts since Darwin Bettyann Kevles

The influence of scientific theories and technologies on the visual arts from the mid-nineteenth century to the present. Understandings and misunderstandings of scientific concepts and inventions as they appear in artistic works. Topics include relativity, quantum mechanics, medical images inside the human body, and images from space. Focus on American and European artists and art movements.  WR, HU
W 1.30–3.20 Seminar

*HSHM 437bG / HIST 435Jb, The Global Crisis of Malaria Frank Snowden

The global crisis of malaria examined in comparative and historical context. The mosquito theory of transmission and other developments in scientific understanding of the disease; World Health Organization strategies to eradicate malaria since 1955; the development of tools such as insecticides, medication, and bed nets; the attempt to create an effective vaccine.  WR, HU
T 1.30–3.20 Seminar

*HSHM 447aG / HIST 379JaG, History of Chinese Science William Summers

Major themes in Chinese scientific thinking from antiquity to the twentieth century. Non-Western concepts of nature and the development of science in China; East-West scientific exchanges; and China's role in modern science.  WR, HURP
HTBA For sections see yale.edu/oci Seminar

*HSHM 459a / HIST 159Ja / HUMS 359a, Spies, Secrets, and Science Paola Bertucci

The relationship between secrecy, intellectual property, and science from the Middle Ages to the Cold War. Topics include alchemy and esoteric knowledge; the Manhattan Project and other secret scientific projects run by the state; the history of patents and copyright laws; and scientists as spies.  WR, HU
W 1.30–3.20 Seminar

*HSHM 460b / HIST 257Jb / HUMS 356b, Art, Technology, and Science from Antiquity to 1800 Paola Bertucci

Changes in the notions of art and science in the West through 1800. The association of the term "art" with the fine arts as a legacy of the Enlightenment; implications of this semantic shift for early modern European culture. Visual and material cultures of science, including anatomical and natural history illustrations, curiosity cabinets and Wunderkammern, microscopy and astronomy, Greek and Roman military technology and warfare, and Leonardo and the engineers of the Renaissance. Use of rare books, manuscripts, and historical scientific instruments from library and museum collections at Yale.  WR, HU
Th 1.30–3.20 Seminar

*HSHM 463b / AMST 418b, Social Governance in Early America Greta LaFleur

The management of bodies and populations in North America from c. 1790 to c. 1850. Focus on the creation, management, and hierarchization of populations through the science of classification, including categories such as race, nation, wealth, and work. Relations between new forms of government and emerging strategies of governance. The specific shape taken by the state's investment in the management of birth, life, and death, and the legacies of that investment.  HU
T 1.30–3.20 Seminar

*HSHM 464a / HIST 142Ja, The Cultural History of Mental Illness Courtney Thompson

The construction of madness and mental illness in Western thought and culture. The rise and fall of the asylum system; the development of psychoanalytic theory; twentieth-century medical practices such as psychopharmaceutical treatments and lobotomy; the antipsychiatry movement; patients' rights and contested diagnoses; portrayals of the mentally ill in society and popular culture; issues surrounding gender and sexuality.  HU
M 1.30–3.20 Seminar

*HSHM 465b / HIST 139Jb / WGSS 457b, Reproductive Health, Gender, and Power in the United States Ziv Eisenberg

U.S. women's and men's reproductive health from the nineteenth century to the present. Ways in which gender norms and social power structures have shaped medical knowledge, scientific investigation, political regulation, and private reproductive experiences. Topics include abortion, activism, childbirth, contraceptives, eugenics, fertility, pregnancy, reproductive science and technology, sexual health, and sterilization.  WR, HU
T 3.30–5.20 Seminar

*HSHM 467b / HIST 140Jb, History of the Modern Body Ziv Eisenberg

Examination of ways in which modern societies and individuals around the globe have understood the human body. The role of society, culture, and politics in shaping medicial science and experiences of health, illness, and debility. Topics include disease, body parts, bodily functions, gender and sexuality, reproduction, mental health, disability, enhancement, and aging.  WR, HU
Th 2.30–4.30 Seminar

*HSHM 470a and HSHM 471b, Directed Reading Joanna Radin

Readings directed by members of the faculty on topics in the history of science, medicine, or public health not covered by regular course offerings. Subjects depend on the interests of students and faculty. Weekly conferences; required papers.
HTBA HTBA Individual Study

*HSHM 490a and HSHM 491b, Yearlong Senior Project Joanna Radin and staff

Preparation of a yearlong senior project under the supervision of a member of the faculty. There will be a mandatory meeting at the beginning of the term for students who have chosen the yearlong senior project; students will be notified of the time and location by e-mail before classes begin. Majors planning to begin their projects who do not receive this notice should contact the senior project director. Students expecting to graduate in May enroll in HSHM 490 during the fall term and complete their projects in HSHM 491 in the spring term. December graduates enroll in HSHM 490 in the spring term and complete their projects in HSHM 491 during the following fall term. Majors planning to begin their projects in the spring term should notify the senior project director by the last day of classes in the fall term. Students must meet progress requirements by specific deadlines throughout the first term to receive a temporary grade of SAT for HSHM 490, which will be changed to the grade received by the project upon the project's completion. Failure to meet any requirement may result in the student's being asked to withdraw from HSHM 490. For details about project requirements and deadlines, consult the HSHM Senior Project Handbook. Students enrolled in HSHM 491 must submit a completed project to 211 HGS no later than 5 p.m. on April 7, 2014, in the spring term, or no later than 5 p.m. on December 2, 2013, in the fall term. Projects submitted after 5 p.m. on the due date without an excuse from the student's residential college dean will be subject to grade penalties. Credit for HSHM 490 only on completion of HSHM 491.
HTBA HTBA Senior Essay

*HSHM 492a or b, One-Term Senior Project Joanna Radin and staff

Preparation of a one-term senior project under the supervision of an HSHM faculty member, or of an affiliated faculty member with approval of the director of undergraduate studies. There will be a mandatory meeting at the beginning of the term for students who have chosen the one-term senior project; students will be notified of the time and location by e-mail before classes begin. Majors planning to begin their projects who do not receive this notice should contact the senior project director. Students expecting to graduate in May enroll in HSHM 492 during the fall term. December graduates enroll in HSHM 492 in the preceding spring term. Students planning to begin their project in the spring should notify the senior essay director by the last day of classes in the fall term. Majors must submit a completed Statement of Intention form signed by the faculty member who has agreed to supervise the project to the HSHM administrator in 207 HGS no later than September 13, 2013 (HSHM 492a), or January 13, 2014 (HSHM 492b). Blank statement forms are available in 207 HGS and in the HSHM Senior Project Handbook. Students enrolled in HSHM 492 must submit a completed senior project to 211 HGS no later than 5 p.m. on December 9, 2013, in the fall term, or no later than 5 p.m. on April 28, 2014, in the spring term. Projects submitted after 5 p.m. on the due date without an excuse from the student's residential college dean will be subject to grade penalties.
HTBA HTBA Senior Essay