History

Director of undergraduate studies: Alan Mikhail, 238 HGS, alan.mikhail@yale.edu; history.yale.edu/

FACULTY OF THE DEPARTMENT OF HISTORY

Professors Jean-Christophe Agnew, Abbas Amanat, Ned Blackhawk, David Blight, Daniel Botsman, Paul Bushkovitch, George Chauncey, Carolyn Dean, John Demos (Emeritus), Fabian Drixler, Carlos Eire, Paul Freedman, Joanne Freeman, John Gaddis, Beverly Gage, Glenda Gilmore, Bruce Gordon, Valerie Hansen, Robert Harms, Jonathan Holloway, Matthew Jacobson, Gilbert Joseph, Paul Kennedy, Benedict Kiernan, Jennifer Klein, Naomi Lamoreaux (Chair), Bentley Layton, Noel Lenski, Kathryn Lofton, Mary Lui, Joseph Manning, Ivan Marcus, John Merriman, Joanne Meyerowitz, Alan Mikhail, Nicholas Parrillo, Peter Perdue, Steven Pincus, Stephen Pitti, Naomi Rogers, Sophia Rosenfeld, Paul Sabin, Lamin Sanneh, Stuart Schwartz, Frank Snowden, Timothy Snyder, David Sorkin, Harry Stout, William Summers, Francesca Trivellato, John Warner, Anders Winroth, John Witt, Keith Wrightson

Associate Professors Paola Bertucci, Crystal Feimster, Andrew Johnston, Daniel Magaziner, Edward Rugemer, Marci Shore, Eliyahu Stern

Assistant Professors Jennifer Allen, Rosie Bsheer, Henry Cowles, Rohit De, Marcela Echeverri, Anne Eller, Denise Ho, Isaac Nakhimovsky, Joanna Radin, William Rankin, Jenifer Van Vleck, Jonathan Wyrtzen

Senior Lecturers Annping Chin, Becky Conekin, Stuart Semmel, Rebecca Tannenbaum

Lecturers Adel Allouche, Amanda Behm, Raymond Clemens, Ivano Dal Prete, Jay Gitlin, George Levesque, Jess Melvin, William Metcalf, Bradley Proctor, Chitra Ramalingam, Terence Renaud, William Summers, Nicholas Wood

The History major is for students who understand that shaping the future requires knowing the past. History courses explore many centuries of human experimentation and ingenuity, from the global to the individual scale. History majors learn to be effective storytellers and analysts, and to craft arguments that speak to broad audiences. They make extensive use of Yale’s vast library resources to create pioneering original research projects. Students of history learn to think about politics and government, sexuality, the economy, cultural and intellectual life, war and society, and other themes in broadly humanistic—rather than narrowly technocratic—ways.

Course numbering Courses numbered HIST 001 to 099 are freshman seminars, with enrollment limited to eighteen. Courses numbered in the 100s explore the history of the United States or Canada; those in the 200s, Europe, Russia, and Britain; and those in the 300s, Africa, Asia, Latin America, and the Middle East. Courses numbered in the 400s address global topics. Courses whose numbers end with the letter "J" are departmental seminars; all departmental seminars are available for preregistration by History majors and are capped at fifteen students.

The major History majors choose one of two tracks. The Global track is designed for students seeking a broad understanding of major trends in the history of human societies throughout the world. The Specialist track is for students seeking to focus in a particular geographic region, such as the United States, or in a thematic pathway, such as empires and colonialism. History is one of Yale College’s most popular and intellectually diverse majors, encompassing nearly every region and time period of the global past. The study of history is excellent preparation for careers in many fields, including law, journalism, business and finance, education, politics and public policy, social activism, and the arts.

Prerequisite The prerequisite for the major is two term courses in History. Courses completed in fulfillment of the prerequisite may be applied toward the requirements of the major.

Requirements of the major Ten term courses in History are required, in addition to the senior essay. No specific courses are required. Upon declaration, all History majors select either the Global or the Specialist track. Majors may change tracks until the end of course selection period in the first term of the senior year.

Members of the class of 2017 who declared the major prior to April 2015 may choose to fulfill the requirements of the History major that were in place when they entered the major, as described in previous editions of this bulletin, with special permission of the director of undergraduate studies.

The Global track requires one course each in five different geographic regions (see below). Students must also take two preindustrial courses, covering material before the year 1800, and two departmental seminars, identified by a "J" suffix to the course number (e.g., HIST 136J).

The Specialist track requires at least five (and up to eight) courses in a particular geographic region or in a thematic pathway (see list below). Courses appropriate for each region and pathway are listed on the History department Web site. Students must also take at least two courses outside their area of specialization, and their overall coursework must include at least three geographic regions. Like students in the Global track, students in the Specialist track must take two preindustrial courses, covering material before the year 1800, and at least two departmental seminars, identified by a "J" suffix to the course number (e.g., HIST 136J). Students in the Specialist track may design an area of specialization with the approval of a faculty adviser and the director of undergraduate studies.

Regions: United States; Europe; Latin America; Asia; Middle East and Africa.

Pathways: cultural history; empires and colonialism; environmental history; ideas and intellectuals; international history; politics and law; race, gender, and sexuality; religion in context; science, technology, and medicine; social change and social movements; war and society; the world economy.

Students in either track may count the same courses toward geographical, preindustrial, and seminar requirements. For instance, a departmental seminar on premodern Japan simultaneously fulfills the preindustrial, seminar, and Asia geographical requirements.

Departmental seminars All students who declare the History major are entitled to preregister for two departmental seminars (designated by a course number ending in J, such as HIST 136J). Many seminars are popular and fill up quickly. Students may use their preregistration privileges at any time after declaring the major, in their sophomore, junior, or senior years. Sophomores contemplating study abroad are urged to consider taking at least one seminar in the sophomore year. Residential college seminars, study-abroad courses, and courses in other departments that count toward the History major do not fulfill the departmental seminar requirement.

Senior requirement Students in the History major are not passive consumers of historical knowledge: they create original works of history themselves. As seniors, History majors complete a work of original research in close consultation with a faculty adviser. The range of acceptable topics is wide, but most essays fall into two categories. The first involves the study of a significant historical subject through research in accessible primary source materials. The second is a critical assessment of a significant historical controversy or historiographical issue.

Most students choose to complete a two-term independent senior essay, for a total of twelve course credits in the major. The two-term essay is required to earn Distinction in the Major. A smaller number of students choose to write an independent one-term essay, for a total of eleven course credits in the major.

The two-term senior essay History majors seeking to earn Distinction in the Major must complete a two-term independent senior essay under the guidance of a faculty adviser. The typical senior essay is 40–50 pages (no more than 12,500 words), plus a bibliography and bibliographical essay. Seniors receive course credit for their departmental essays by enrolling in HIST 495 (first term of senior year) and HIST 496 (second term of senior year). The grade for the final essay, determined by an outside reader in consultation with the faculty adviser, is applied retroactively to both terms. Additional details about the senior essay are provided in the Senior Essay Handbook, available on the History department Web site.

The one-term senior essay History majors may choose to write a one-term independent senior essay during the fall term under the guidance of a faculty adviser; however, students who choose the one-term option are not eligible for Distinction in the Major. The one-term essay must include a substantial research paper (roughly half the length of the two-term senior essay) based on primary sources, along with a bibliographic essay. Seniors receive course credit for their departmental essays by enrolling in HIST 497 during the fall of senior year. History majors graduating in December may enroll during the prior spring term, or the seventh term of enrollment. In rare circumstances, with permission of the adviser and Senior Essay Director, a student enrolled in HIST 497 during the fall term may withdraw from the course in accordance with Yale College regulations on course withdrawal and enroll in HIST 497 during the spring term. Additional details about the senior essay are provided in the Senior Essay Handbook, available on the History department Web site.

Additional options for the senior essay Some students embark on the two-term essay but discover that their choice is not a good fit. Other students begin a one-term essay only to discover that they are passionate about the subject and wish to expand their paper in a second term of independent research. To accommodate such students, the History major offers both an "opt-in" and an "opt-out" clause for the two-term senior essay. Students who begin the year writing a one-term senior essay by enrolling in HIST 497 during the fall semester may "opt in" to the two-term essay by enrolling in HIST 496 during the second term of the senior year, with the permission of the faculty adviser and the senior essay director. Students who enroll in HIST 495 during the first term may "opt out" (by the decision of their faculty adviser and the senior essay director) and instead enroll in HIST 497 to write a one-term senior essay during the second term of the senior year. Students who "opt out" will not be eligible for Distinction in the Major. Additional details about the senior essay are provided in the Senior Essay Handbook, available on the History department Web site.

Advising All students who declare the History major are assigned an adviser from among the departmental faculty. The adviser is available throughout the year for consultation about courses and the major. Students in the Global track are assigned an adviser from the general History faculty. Students in the Specialist track are assigned an adviser in their area of specialization. At the beginning of each term, students majoring in History must have their schedule signed and approved by their departmental adviser or by the director of undergraduate studies. Students may request a specific adviser in consultation with the director of undergraduate studies, though the department cannot always accommodate such requests.

Course substitution History majors are permitted to include up to two courses taught outside the department toward fulfillment of the major, with the approval of the director of undergraduate studies. Nondepartmental courses may fulfill geographic, region/pathway, and preindustrial distribution requirements. They may not fulfill departmental seminar or senior requirements.

Distinction in the major Students who receive an A or A– on the two-term senior essay and who receive the requisite grades in their remaining course work are awarded Distinction in the Major. (See under Honors in the Undergraduate Curriculum section of this bulletin.) Students who do not complete the two-term senior essay are not eligible for Distinction.

Combined B.A./M.A. degree program Exceptionally able and well-prepared students may complete a course of study leading to the simultaneous award of the B.A. and M.A. degrees after eight terms of enrollment. See "Simultaneous Award of the Bachelor's and Master's Degrees" under Special Arrangements, section K, in the Academic Regulations. Interested students should consult the director of undergraduate studies prior to the sixth term of enrollment for specific requirements in History.

REQUIREMENTS OF THE MAJOR

Prerequisites 2 term courses in History

Number of courses 10 term courses (incl prereqs, not incl senior essay)

Distribution of courses Both tracks—2 courses in preindustrial hist; 2 departmental sems; Global track—1 course in each of 5 geographical regions (U.S., Europe, Latin America, Asia, Africa/Middle East); Specialist track—5 courses in specific region or pathway; at least 2 courses outside region or pathway; overall course work must include 3 regions

Substitution permitted 1 or 2 nondepartmental courses approved by DUS

Senior requirement Two-term senior essay (HIST 495 and 496) or one-term senior essay (HIST 497)

Freshman Seminars

* HIST 009a, The Viking Age Anders Winroth

Exploration of the ambiguous role of the Vikings in the history of the early Middle Ages. Focus both on the Vikings' impact in Europe (raids, trade, and settlement) and on developments in their Scandinavian homelands (Christianization and the creation of kingdoms). Enrollment limited to freshmen. Preregistration required; see under Freshman Seminar Program.  WR, HU
History: Preindustrial

* HIST 016b / AFAM 060b / AMST 060b, Significance of American Slavery Edward Rugemer

The history of American slavery, its destruction during the nineteenth century, and its significance today. Topics include the origins of slavery, the development of racism, the transatlantic slave trade, the experience of enslavement, resistance to slavery, the abolitionist movement, the process of emancipation, and the perpetuation of slavery and other forms of unfree labor in the twenty-first century. Enrollment limited to freshmen. Preregistration required; see under Freshman Seminar Program.  WR, HU

* HIST 033a / WGSS 033a, Fashion in London and Paris, 1750 to the Present Becky Conekin

Introduction to the history of Western fashion from the mid-eighteenth century to the present, with a focus on Paris and London. Approaches, methods, and theories scholars have historically employed to study fashion and dress. Enrollment limited to freshmen. Preregistration required; see under Freshman Seminar Program.  WR, HU

* HIST 034a, Cuba from Slavery to Revolution Anne Eller

Cuba’s rich history from the early colonial period to the present. Topics include colonialism, slavery, independence, emancipation, the Cuban Revolution, and the nation's relationship with the United States. Enrollment limited to freshmen. Preregistration required; see under Freshman Seminar Program.  WR, HU

* HIST 040a, Comparative Women's History Staff

Comparative perspective on the lives of women and their experiences, the ways in which historical forces shaped gender roles in different cultures, and the similarities and differences in gender roles across different time periods and around the world. Topics include work, family roles, political participation, health and sexuality, religious roles, and global feminisms.   WR, HU

* HIST 041b, The Americas in the Age of Revolutions Marcela Echeverri Munoz

The connections, contrasts, and legacies of revolutions in the British, French, and Spanish Atlantic empires in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Interactions between liberalism, black politics and antislavery, indigenous autonomy and citizenship, and revolutions in the Atlantic world between the 1760s and 1880s. Topics include the foundations of the Atlantic empires, strands of anticolonialism across the Americas, social aspects of the revolutionary movements, abolitionism and emancipation processes, and relations between the emergent American nations. Enrollment limited to freshmen. Preregistration required; see under Freshman Seminar Program.  WR, HU

* HIST 055b, A History of Modern London Becky Conekin

Chronological and thematic exploration of modern London as a metropolitan and imperial center from the late-nineteenth-century to the present day. Topics include race, gay rights, women's rights, consumer culture, the experience of war, and the development of a multi-racial society. The fashion, food, and popular music of London emerge as important components of the city's global identity in the twentieth century. Enrollment limited to freshmen. Preregistration required; see under Freshman Seminar Program.  WR, HU

* HIST 072b, The History of World History Valerie Hansen

How the great historians of ancient Greece, Rome, China, the Islamic world, and nineteenth-century Europe created modern historical method. How to evaluate the reliability of sources, both primary and secondary, and assess the relationship between fact and interpretation. Using historical method to make sense of our world today. Enrollment limited to freshmen. Preregistration required; see under Freshman Seminar Program.  WR, HURP

* HIST 089a / HUMS 090a, Thinking about History Staff

An introduction to the discipline of history. Exploration of influential historical narratives; the philosophy of history; the emergence of historical subdisciplines including history from below, microhistory, the new cultural history, and Big History; and interdisciplinary engagement with anthropology, literary criticism, art history, and psychology. Enrollment limited to freshmen. Preregistration required; see under Freshman Seminar Program.  WR, HU

Lecture Courses

HIST 107a / AMST 133a / ER&M 187a, Introduction to American Indian History Ned Blackhawk

Survey of American Indian history, beginning with creation traditions and migration theories and continuing to the present day. Focus on American Indian nations whose homelands are located within the contemporary United States. Complexity and change within American Indian societies, with emphasis on creative adaptations to changing historical circumstances.  HU
History: Preindustrial

HIST 119b / AFAM 172b, The Civil War and Reconstruction Era, 1845–1877 David Blight

The causes, course, and consequences of the American Civil War. A search for the multiple meanings of a transformative event, including national, sectional, racial, constitutional, social, gender, intellectual, and individual dimensions.  HU

HIST 120a / AMST 163a / EVST 120a / HSHM 204a, American Environmental History Paul Sabin

Ways in which people have shaped and been shaped by the changing environments of North America from precolonial times to the present. Migration of species and trade in commodities; the impact of technology, agriculture, and industry; the development of resources in the American West and overseas; the rise of modern conservation and environmental movements; the role of planning and impact of public policies.  WR, HU

HIST 127a / AMST 135a / WGSS 200a, U.S. Lesbian and Gay History George Chauncey

Introduction to the social, cultural, and political history of lesbians, gay men, and other socially constituted sexual minorities. Focus on understanding categories of sexuality in relation to shifting normative regimes, primarily in the twentieth century. The emergence of homosexuality and heterosexuality as categories of experience and identity; the changing relationship between homosexuality and transgenderism; the development of diverse lesbian and gay subcultures and their representation in popular culture; religion and sexual science; generational change and everyday life; AIDS; and gay, antigay, feminist, and queer movements.  HU

HIST 135b / ECON 182b, American Economic History Matthew Jaremski

The growth of the American economy since 1790, both as a unique historical record and as an illustration of factors in the process of economic development. The American experience viewed in the context of its European background and patterns of industrialization overseas. After introductory microeconomics.  WR, SO

HIST 136b / AFAM 125b / AMST 125b, The Long Civil Rights Movement Crystal Feimster

Political, social, and artistic aspects of the U.S. civil rights movement from the 1920s through the 1980s explored in the context of other organized efforts for social change. Focus on relations between the African American freedom movement and debates about gender, labor, sexuality, and foreign policy. Changing representations of social movements in twentieth-century American culture; the politics of historical analysis.  HU

HIST 140b / HSHM 215b, Public Health in America, 1793 to the Present Naomi Rogers

A survey of public health in America from the yellow fever epidemic of 1793 to AIDS and breast cancer activism at the end of the past century. Focusing on medicine and the state, topics include quarantines, failures and successes of medical and social welfare, the experiences of healers and patients, and organized medicine and its critics.  HU

HIST 147a / AMST 247a / FILM 244a / HLTH 170a / HSHM 202a, Media and Medicine in Modern America John Warner

Relationships between medicine, health, and the media in the United States from 1870 to the present. The changing role of the media in shaping conceptions of the body, creating new diseases, influencing health and health policy, crafting the image of the medical profession, informing expectations of medicine and constructions of citizenship, and the medicalization of American life.  HU

HIST 154b / HSHM 203b, Making Medicine Modern Jenna Healey

Survey of Western medical theory, practice, and institutions from antiquity to the present. Topics include the evolution of theories of disease, competing theories of medical epistemology, the political development of the medical profession, the shifting cultural meaning of the hospital, and the role of medical technology in visualizing the body.   HU

HIST 171b / AMST 271b / WGSS 201b, Women in Modern America Joanne Meyerowitz

U.S. women's history and the history of gender from 1900 to the present. Changing meanings of femininity, masculinity, sex, gender, and sexuality; intersections of class, race, ethnicity, and gender; women's labor in industrial and postindustrial economies; women's participation in politics and social movements; trends in sexual expression, gender presentation, reproduction, child rearing, and marriage; and feminist and other gender-equity movements.  HU

HIST 183b / AMST 272b / ER&M 282b / WGSS 272b, Asian American History, 1800 to the Present Mary Lui

An introduction to the history of East, South, and Southeast Asian migrations and settlement to the United States from the late eighteenth century to the present. Major themes include labor migration, community formation, U.S. imperialism, legal exclusion, racial segregation, gender and sexuality, cultural representations, and political resistance.  HU

HIST 184a / AFAM 160a / AFST 184a / AMST 160a, The Rise and Fall of Atlantic Slavery Edward Rugemer

The history of peoples of African descent throughout the Americas, from the first African American societies of the sixteenth century through the century-long process of emancipation.  HU
History: Preindustrial

HIST 188b / AMST 234b / ER&M 243b / RLST 342b, Spiritual But Not Religious Zareena Grewal

Study of the historical and contemporary “unchurching” trends in American religious life in a comparative perspective and across different scales of analysis in order to think about the relationship between spirituality, formal religion, secular psychology and the self-help industry.  HU, SO

HIST 193a / HSHM 242a, Molecules, Life, and Disease: Twentieth Century William Summers

The emergence of the molecular vision of life and disease in the twentieth century. Topics include the role of technology and research practices, intellectual and political migrations, science policy and philanthropic foundations, constructions of risks and patenting of life, big science and biotechnology, politics of memory, and popular representation of science. Relationships to broad intellectual, social, cultural, and political changes.  HU

HIST 202a, European Civilization, 1648–1945 John Merriman

An overview of the economic, social, political, and intellectual history of modern Europe. Topics include the rise of absolute states, the scientific revolution, the Enlightenment, the French Revolution and Napoleon, the industrial revolution, the revolutions of 1848, nationalism and national unifications, Victorian Britain, the colonization of Africa and Asia, fin-de-siècle culture and society, the Great War, the Russian Revolution, the Europe of political extremes, and World War II.  HU

HIST 205a / CLCV 205a / HUMS 143, Introduction to Ancient Greek History Jessica Lamont

Introduction to Greek history, tracing the development of Greek civilization as manifested in the political, military, intellectual, and creative achievements from the Bronze Age through the end of the Classical period. Students read original sources in translation as well as secondary scholarship to better understand the rise and fall of the ancient Greeks—the civilization at the very heart of Western Civilization.   HU
History: Preindustrial

HIST 206a, The Middle Ages, 300–1500 Staff

Introduction to the European Middle Ages. Topics include Rome's decline, the rise of Christianity, the spread of Islam, Charlemagne, Viking attacks, wars and the Crusades, the commercial revolution, saints, the culture of chivalry, the papacy, the invention of universities, the foundations for modern law, and early journeys of discovery. May not be taken after HIST 210 or 211.  WR, HU
History: Preindustrial

HIST 207b / CLCV 245b, The Invention of History in Antiquity Andrew Johnston

Exploration of Greek and Roman constructions and representations of the past from the earliest works of classical literature through the rise of Christianity. Topics include: science and history as objects of inquiry; geography, ethnography, and writing about "the Other;" the role of myth and fiction; orality and social memory; monuments and texts; autobiography and self-representation; propaganda and politics; chronology and chronography; teleology, prophesy, and Christian histories.   WR, HU

HIST 208b / CLCV 134b / HSHM 278b, Ancient Greek Medicine and Healing Jessica Lamont

An introduction to Greek medicine and healing practices from the fifth century BCE to the second century CE, with attention to central concepts, methods, and theories. The relation of scientific theories to clinical practice, magic, temple medicine, and Greek philosophy are considered.  HU
History: Preindustrial

HIST 216a / JDST 332a / MMES 197a / RLST 193a, Zionism Eliyahu Stern

Introduction to the core ideas of the Zionist movement from the mid-nineteenth century to the mid-twentieth. Focus on internal Jewish debates and criticism of the movement by European and Middle Eastern intellectuals. Social, political, cultural, and messianic ideological strands within the movement and their interpretations of various historical experiences and ideas located in the Jewish tradition.  HU
History: Preindustrial

HIST 219a / ER&M 219a / JDST 200a / MMES 149a / RLST 148a, Jewish History and Thought to Early Modern Times Ivan Marcus

A broad introduction to the history of the Jews from biblical beginnings until the European Reformation and the Ottoman Empire. Focus on the formative period of classical rabbinic Judaism and on the symbiotic relationships among Jews, Christians, and Muslims. Jewish society and culture in its biblical, rabbinic, and medieval settings. Counts toward either European or non-Western distributional credit within the History major, upon application to the director of undergraduate studies.  HURP
History: Preindustrial

HIST 220b / JDST 201b / RLST 149b, Introduction to Modern Jewish History David Sorkin

A broad introduction to the history of Jewish culture from the late Middle Ages until the present. Emphasis on the changing interaction of Jews with the larger society as well as the transformation of Judaism in its encounter with modernity.  HU
History: Preindustrial

HIST 221a / GLBL 281a, Military History of the West since 1500 Paul Kennedy

A study of the military history of the West since 1500, with emphasis on the relationship between armies and navies on the one hand, and technology, economics, geography, and the rise of the modern nation-state on the other. The coming of airpower in its varied manifestations. Also meets requirements for the Air Force and Naval ROTC programs.  HU

HIST 225b / CLCV 236b, Roman Law Noel Lenski

Basic principles of Roman law and their applications to the social and economic history of antiquity and to the broader history of international law. Topics include the history of persons and things, inheritance, crime and tort, and legal procedure. Questions of social and economic history and the history of jurisprudence from the fifth century B.C.E. to the present.  HU

* HIST 227b / SPAN 367b, The Spanish Civil War: Words and Images Noël Valis

An introduction to the history and cultural-literary impact of the Spanish Civil War (1936–39) from national and international perspectives. Views both from within and from outside the war; women and the war; memory and the war. Authors include George Orwell, Ernest Hemingway, Javier Cercas, Alberto Méndez, Mercè Rodoreda, Ramón J. Sender, W. H. Auden, and Stephen Spender. Open to students who have placed into L5 courses or who have successfully completed an L4 course in Spanish. Counts toward the Spanish major.  L5, HU

HIST 236a / HSHM 226a, The Scientific Revolution Paola Bertucci

The changing relationship between the natural world and the arts from Leonardo to Newton. Topics include Renaissance anatomy and astronomy, alchemy, and natural history.  HU
History: Preindustrial

HIST 237b / RSEE 390b / RUSS 241b, Russian Culture: The Modern Age Paul Bushkovitch and John MacKay

An interdisciplinary exploration of Russian cultural history, focusing on literature, art, religion, social and political thought, and film. Conceptions of Russian nationhood; the myths of St. Petersburg; dissent and persecution; the role of social and cultural elites; the intelligentsia; attitudes toward the common people; conflicting appeals of rationality, spirituality, and idealism; the politicization of personal life; the impact of the Bolshevik Revolution and its aftermath. Readings and discussion in English.  HU

HIST 238a, Britain's Empire to 1776 Steven Pincus

Exploration of why Britain was able to transform itself during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries from a minor offshore archipelago into the world's greatest power. Focus on changes both within Britain and in North America, the West Indies, and South Asia. The British Empire situated in relation to other empires; the virtually simultaneous creation of a British Empire in India and loss of an empire in North America; the American Revolution as part of a British imperial crisis.  HU
History: Preindustrial

HIST 246b / EVST 189b, The History of Food Paul Freedman

The history of food and culinary styles from prehistory to the present, with a particular focus on Europe and the United States. How societies gathered and prepared food. Changing taste preferences over time. The influence of consumers on trade, colonization, and cultural exchange. The impact of colonialism, technology, and globalization. The current food scene and its implications for health, the environment, and cultural shifts.  HU

HIST 248b / JDST 293b / RLST 214b, Introduction to Modern Jewish Thought Eliyahu Stern

An overview of Jewish philosophical trends, movements, and thinkers from the seventeenth century to the twenty-first. Topics include enlightenment, historicism, socialism, secularism, religious radicalism, and Zionism.  HU

HIST 252a / JDST 340a, Political History of European Jewry, 1589–1897 David Sorkin

The reshaping of political principles that governed Jewish life in the European diaspora during the modern period. The Jews' internal traditions of political self-understanding and behavior; the changing political status of Jews in Europe; Jewish political participation in European society.  HU

HIST 254b / GMAN 208b, Germany from Unification to Refugee Crisis Jennifer Allen

The history of Germany from its unification in 1871 through the present. Topics include German nationalism and national unification; the culture and politics of the Weimar Republic; National Socialism and the Holocaust; the division of Germany and the Cold War; the Student Movement and New Social Movements; reunification; and Germany's place in contemporary Europe.  HU

HIST 263a, Eastern Europe to 1914 Timothy Snyder

Eastern Europe from the medieval state to the rise of modern nationalism. The Ottoman Empire, the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, the Hapsburg monarchy, and various native currents. Themes include religious diversity, the constitution of empire, and the emergence of secular political ideologies.  HU

HIST 264b, Eastern Europe since 1914 Timothy Snyder

Eastern Europe from the collapse of the old imperial order to the enlargement of the European Union. Main themes include world war, nationalism, fascism, and communism. Special attention to the structural weaknesses of interwar nation-states and postwar communist regimes. Nazi and Soviet occupation as an age of extremes. The collapse of communism. Communism after 1989 and the dissolution of Yugoslavia in the 1990s as parallel European trajectories.  HU

HIST 271b, European Intellectual History since Nietzsche Marci Shore

Major currents in European intellectual history from the late nineteenth century through the twentieth. Topics include Marxism-Leninism, psychoanalysis, expressionism, structuralism, phenomenology, existentialism, antipolitics, and deconstruction.  HU

HIST 275a, Revolutionary France, 1789–1871 John Merriman

Dimensions of political, social, and economic change in France during its most turbulent period. The causes and impact of the revolutions of 1789, 1830, 1848, and 1871; demographic change and large-scale industrialization; shifting political elites, republican and socialist alternatives to monarchy, and urbanization.  HU

HIST 276b, France since 1871 John Merriman

The emergence of modern France since the Paris Commune of 1871 and the beginnings of the Third Republic. The social, economic, political, and cultural transformation of France; the impact of France's revolutionary heritage, of industrialization, and of the dislocation wrought by two world wars and decolonialization; and the political response of the Left and the Right to changing French society, including the impact of immigration and the emergence and challenges of the European Union. One discussion section conducted in French; students in this section may count the course toward the French major.  HU

HIST 280a / ITAL 315a / RLST 160a, The Catholic Intellectual Tradition Carlos Eire

Introductory survey of the interaction between Catholicism and Western culture from the first century to the present, with a focus on pivotal moments and crucial developments that defined both traditions. Key beliefs, rites, and customs of the Roman Catholic Church, and the ways in which they have found expression; interaction between Catholics and the institution of the Church; Catholicism in its cultural and sociopolitical matrices. Close reading of primary sources.  HU

HIST 281b / RLST 268b, Christian Mysticism, 1200–1700 Carlos Eire

An introductory survey of the mystical literature of the Christian West, focusing on the late medieval and early modern periods. Close reading of primary texts, analyzed in their historical context.  HU
History: Preindustrial

HIST 290a, Russia from the Ninth Century to 1801 Paul Bushkovitch

The mainstream of Russian history from the Kievan state to 1801. Political, social, and economic institutions and the transition from Eastern Orthodoxy to the Enlightenment.  HU
History: Preindustrial

HIST 307b / EAST 301b, The Making of Japan's Great Peace, 1550–1850 Fabian Drixler

Examination of how, after centuries of war in Japan and overseas, the Tokugawa shogunate built a peace that lasted more than 200 years. Japan's urban revolution, the eradication of Christianity, the Japanese discovery of Europe, and the question of whether Tokugawa Japan is a rare example of a complex and populous society that achieved ecological sustainability.  HU
History: Preindustrial

HIST 309a / SAST 271a, History of Ancient India David Brick

Introduction to Indian society and civilization from its earliest beginnings until c. 1000 C.E. Topics include politics, caste and class, commerce, religion, art and architecture, literature, and science.  HU

HIST 323b, Southeast Asia since 1900 Jessica Melvin

Comparative colonialism, nationalism, revolution, and independence in modern Southeast Asia. Topics include Indonesia and the Dutch, Indochina under French rule, the United States in the Philippines and Vietnam, Buddhism in Burma and Thailand, communist and peasant movements, and the Cambodian revolution and its regional repercussions.  HU

HIST 325a, Introduction to Latin American History Anne Eller

Critical themes and events in Latin American history from pre-Columbian times to the present. Major formative epochs such as the pre-Columbian era, colonization, independence, and contemporary moments; modern political flashpoints, including Haiti, Cuba, Argentina, and Peru.  HU

HIST 332a / AFST 333a, African Encounters with Colonialism Daniel Magaziner

How African societies and peoples encountered, engaged, and endured the colonial and postcolonial world, from the arrival of Kiswahili-speaking traders at the shores of Lake Victoria in the 1840s through the rise and fall of European colonialism and the resulting forms of neocolonialism. Transformations and continuities in African religious life; gendered sociability; popular culture.  HU

HIST 335b / AFST 335b / ER&M 325b, A History of South Africa Daniel Magaziner

An introduction to the history of southern Africa, especially South Africa. Indigenous communities; early colonial contact; the legacies of colonial rule; postcolonial mismanagement; the vagaries of the environment; the mineral revolution; segregationist regimes; persistent inequality and crime since the end of apartheid; the specter of AIDS; postcolonial challenges in Zimbabwe, Angola, and Mozambique.
HU

HIST 340b / AFST 340b, Africa in the Era of the Slave Trade Robert Harms

Examination of the tumultuous changes experienced by African societies during the era of the Atlantic slave trade, approximately 1450–1850. Focus on the complex interaction between the internal dynamics of African societies and the impact of outside forces.  HU
History: Preindustrial

HIST 345b / JDST 265b / MMES 148b / RLST 202b, Jews in Muslim Lands from the Seventh to the Sixteenth Centuries Ivan Marcus

Jewish culture and society in Muslim lands from the time of the Prophet Muhammad to that of Suleiman the Magnificent. Topics include Islam and Judaism; Jerusalem as a holy site; rabbinic leadership and literature in Baghdad; Jewish courtiers, poets, and philosophers in Muslim Spain; and the Jews in the Ottoman Empire.  HURP
History: Preindustrial

HIST 346a / MMES 144a, The Making of Modern Iran Abbas Amanat

The political, socioreligious, and cultural history of modern Iran from the Shi'ite revolution and the rise of the Safavid Empire to the present. Discussion of Shi'ism and the state, relations with neighboring countries (the Ottoman Empire and India), Russia and Britain in Qajar Iran, the Babi-Baha'i religion, the constitutional revolution, the Pahlavi dynasty, oil, nationalism and relations with the United States, the causes and the consequences of the Islamic revolution, and Iran in the contemporary Middle East.  HU

HIST 350a / MMES 175a / NELC 350a, Formation of the Islamic State, 610 –750 Adel Allouche

The development of Islamic polity and society from the rise of Islam to the rise of the Abbasid dynasty. Religious and societal changes caused by the success of Muhammad's mission; ramifications of the subsequent Arab expansion at the expense of the Byzantine and Sasanian empires. The origins of Islamic institutions; the historical development of the main religious sects and of Islamic legal thought; Western views of Islam.  HU
History: Preindustrial

HIST 351b / MMES 193b / RLST 155b, The Golden Age of Islam Gerhard Böwering

The development of Islamic civilization in the Middle East, North Africa, Spain, Iran, and India from Muhammad through the Mongol invasions to the rise of the Ottoman, Safavid, and Mughal empires (600–1500 C.E.). Emphasis on the intellectual and religious history of Islam in the age of the caliphates and during the rule of regional dynasties.  HU

HIST 361a / LAST 361a, History of Brazil Stuart Schwartz

Brazilian history from European contact to the reestablishment of civilian government in the 1990s. Focus on the multiethnic nature of Brazilian society, the formation of social and political patterns, and the relationship of people to the environment.  HU

HIST 368b / ER&M 368b / LAST 368b, Political Violence, Citizenship, and Democracy in Latin America Marcela Echeverri Munoz

Exploration of how and when definitions of citizenship and democracy have been shaped by violent conflicts; how local and global contexts have influenced individual and collective political action; and the transformation of leadership, ideologies, and utopias in different Latin American contexts.  HU

HIST 373b, The Silk Road Valerie Hansen

A journey along the overland and sea routes that connected China, India, and Iran from 200 to 1000 C.E. and served as conduits for cultural exchange. The lives of merchants, envoys, pilgrims, and travelers interacting in cosmopolitan communities. Exploration of long-known and newly discovered archaeological ruins, along with primary sources in translation.  WR, HU
History: Preindustrial

HIST 375a / EAST 375a, China from Mao to Now Denise Ho

The history of the People's Republic of China from Mao to now, with a focus on understanding the recent Chinese past and framing contemporary events in China in historical context. How the party-state is organized; interactions between state and society; causes and consequences of economic disparities; ways in which various groups—from intellectuals to religious believers—have shaped the meaning of contemporary Chinese society.  HU

HIST 396b / SAST 224b, India and Pakistan since 1947 Staff

Introduction to the history of the Indian subcontinent from 1947 to the present. Focus on the emergence of modern forms of life and thought, the impact of the partition on state and society, and the challenges of democracy and development. Transformations of society, economy, and culture; state building; economic policy.  HU

HIST 402a / HSHM 214a, Extraterrestrials in History Ivano Dal Prete

The notion of extraterrestrials and "radical others" in history and culture from antiquity to the present. Topics include other worlds and their inhabitants in ancient Greece; medieval debates on the plurality of worlds; angels, freaks, native Americans, and other "aliens" of the Renaissance; comet dwellers in puritan New England; Mars as a socialist utopia in the early twentieth century; and visitors from space in American popular culture.  HU

HIST 416b / EVST 211b / G&G 211b / HSHM 211b, Global Catastrophe since 1750 William Rankin

A history of the geological, atmospheric, and environmental sciences, with a focus on predictions of global catastrophe. Topics range from headline catastrophes such as global warming, ozone depletion, and nuclear winter to historical debates about the age of the Earth, the nature of fossils, and the management of natural resources. Tensions between science and religion; the role of science in government; environmental economics; the politics of prediction, modeling, and incomplete evidence.  HU

* HIST 481b / PLSC 321b, Studies in Grand Strategy I Elizabeth Bradley

The study of grand strategy, of how individuals and groups can accomplish large ends with limited means. The spring semester focuses on key moments in history that illustrate strategic thinking in action. During the summer, students undertake research projects or internships analyzing strategic problems or aspects of strategy. The following fall, students put their ideas into action by applying concepts of grand strategy to present day issues. Admission is by application only; the cycle for the current year is closed. Previous study courses in political science, history, global affairs, or subjects with broad interdisciplinary relevance encouraged.  HU, SO

HIST 485b / HSHM 227b, Science in the Ancient and Premodern World Ivano Dal Prete

The engagement of premodern civilizations with the study of nature, from antiquity to c. 1500. Middle Eastern and Greco-Roman scientific traditions, cross-cultural dissemination with India and China, natural philosophy in the Islamic and Christian Middle Ages. Emphasis on the visual and material culture of science. No background in history or science is required.  HU

Departmental Seminars

All History majors must take at least two departmental seminars. Seminars on the history of the United States or Canada are numbered 100J to 199J; seminars on Britain and Europe are 200J to 299J; and seminars on Africa, Asia, Latin America, and the Middle East are 300J to 399J. Seminars numbered in the 400s address global topics; students must apply to the director of undergraduate studies in History to count a 400-level seminar toward a particular geographical distribution category. Each departmental seminar aims to acquaint students in a substantial and professional way with the literature of a period in history; to train them as far as possible in the use of primary source materials; to introduce them to problems of bibliography, historiography, and historical method; and to give them training in the writing of history. The relative importance of these objectives in any particular seminar depends on its subject matter, the previous preparation of its students, and the availability of materials.

Each term declared History majors should apply for departmental seminars for the following term using the online seminar preregistration site. Preregistration begins after midterm in the fall for seminars offered in the spring term, and after spring recess for seminars offered in the subsequent fall term. All students who wish to preregister must declare their major beforehand.

During the course selection period, application for admission should be made directly to the instructors of the seminars, who will admit students to remaining vacancies in their seminars. Priority is given to applications from juniors, then seniors, majoring in History, but applications are also accepted from qualified sophomores and from students majoring in other disciplines or programs. The department seeks wherever possible to accommodate students' preferences; for their part, students should recognize that limitations imposed by the size of seminars (normally fifteen students) make accommodation impossible in some instances. HIST 494 and residential college seminars that count toward the History major do not fulfill the departmental seminar requirement.

* HIST 101Jb, The Long History of American Conservatism Joshua Lynn

Tracing the evolution of conservatism in the United States, from its ideological origins in the Age of Democratic Revolutions through the modern New Right. Examination, in different time periods, of conservatism as political theory, public policy, culture, and as lived experiences.   HU

* HIST 102Jb, Race and Gender in the South, Civil War to Civil Rights Bradley Proctor

This course will explore how categories of race and gender changed in the United States South over the century between the Civil War and the Civil Rights Movement.  WR, HU
History: Preindustrial

* HIST 104Jb, Social Reform in the United States, 1890–1968 Ben Zdencanovic

Study of organized efforts to transform and reconfigure the social and economic fabric of American life through focus on four periods of reform: the agrarian Populist movement at the end of the nineteenth century; the Progressive movement in the early twentieth century; the New Deal during the 1930s and early 1940s; and the Civil Rights movement, the War on Poverty, and the rise of the "Right" in the postwar period.  WR, HU

* HIST 107Ja, The Antislavery Struggle in America Nicholas Wood

The history of antislavery in America through examination of how the ongoing civil rights movement and other contemporary issues have influenced study of the history of slavery, resistance, and abolition during the last sixty years. Readings and primary source activities will prepare students for writing a paper based on original research.  WR, HU

* HIST 111Jb / AFAM 380b / AMST 407b, Antebellum America Edward Rugemer

History of the United States from the Jackson administration through the Civil War. Emphasis on race, slavery, and the coming of the war, with some attention to western expansion.  WR, HU
History: Preindustrial

* HIST 113Ja / AMST 457a, Cultural Capital: New York in the Twentieth Century Jean-Christophe Agnew

An interdisciplinary study of New York City as a global cultural capital in the twentieth century. Social, political, and economic forces shaping the principal institutions of the city's patrician, popular, and mass cultures. The formation of identifiably "New York" styles in the arts, architecture, photography, literature, and film. The changing geography of cultural creation, reproduction, and distribution in the city.  WR, HU

* HIST 116Jb / AFAM 207b, Sex, Race, and Forced Labor After the Civil War Tammy Ingram

Exploration of how human trafficking and forced labor have functioned as methods of legal and social control in the U.S. South since the abolition of slavery. Topics include exploitative labor contracts, vagrancy laws, sharecropping, convict leasing and chain gangs, child labor, and the modern crisis of mass incarceration, as well as extralegal practices such as prostitution, debtor’s prisons, and the exploitation of undocumented migrant workers.  WR, HU

* HIST 119Jb / AMST 400b / ER&M 358b, The History of Race in the Early Americas Greta LaFleur

A broad survey of the history of racial thinking in the Atlantic world from the early modern period through the late nineteenth century. Students will denaturalize the idea that race is synonymous with skin color by turning to the long history of racism and racial thinking in the Atlantic world to illustrate the way that current ideas about what race “is” or means is a profoundly twentieth-century idea.  HU

* HIST 127Jb / WGSS 427b, Witchcraft in Colonial America Staff

The social, religious, economic, and gender history of British North America as manifested through witchcraft beliefs and trials.  WR, HU
History: Preindustrial

* HIST 130Jb / AMST 441b / ER&M 370b, Indians and the Spanish Borderlands Ned Blackhawk

The experiences of Native Americans during centuries of relations with North America's first imperial power, Spain. The history and long-term legacies of Spanish colonialism from Florida to California.  WR, HU
History: Preindustrial

* HIST 131Jb / ER&M 392b, Urban History in the United States, 1870 to the Present Staff

The history of work, leisure, consumption, and housing in American cities. Topics include immigration, formation and re-formation of ethnic communities, the segregation of cities along the lines of class and race, labor organizing, the impact of federal policy, the growth of suburbs, the War on Poverty and Reaganism, and post-Katrina New Orleans.  WR, HU

* HIST 134Ja or b, Yale and America: Selected Topics in Social and Cultural History Jay Gitlin

Relations between Yale and Yale people—from Ezra Stiles and Noah Webster to Cole Porter, Henry Roe Cloud, and Maya Lin—and American society and culture. Elihu Yale and the global eighteenth century; Benjamin Silliman and the emergence of American science; Walter Camp, Dink Stover, and the all-American boy; Henry Luce and the information age; faith and ideology in postwar Yale and America.  WR, HURP

* HIST 136Ja, Liberalism and Conservatism in the Modern United States Beverly Gage

American domestic politics and political thought since the New Deal. Emphasis on the decline of midcentury liberalism and the rise of modern American conservatism. Topics include McCarthyism, the civil rights movement, the New Left, labor, business activism, the conservative intellectual movement, the Christian Right, and the Reagan Revolution.  WR, HU

* HIST 139Ja / AFAM 255a, The American South, 1870 to the Present Glenda Gilmore

A thematic approach to the history of the American South since Reconstruction. Focus on the political, social, and cultural history of a region that has undergone dramatic change. Topics include white supremacy and African American resistance, industrialization and labor activism, music and literature, the civil rights movement and the rise of the Republican South, and changing regional identity.  WR, HU

* HIST 150Jb / HSHM 406b, Healthcare for the Urban Poor in Twentieth Century America Sakena Abedin

Exploration of the institutions, movements, and policies that have attempted to provide healthcare for the urban poor in twentieth-century America, with emphasis on the ideas (about health, cities, neighborhoods, poverty, race, gender, difference, etc) that shaped them. Topics include hospitals, health centers, public health programs, the medical civil rights movement, the women’s health movement, and national healthcare policies such as Medicare and Medicaid.    SO

* HIST 151Jb / AMST 422b / ER&M 435b, Writing Tribal Histories Ned Blackhawk

Historical overview of American Indian tribal communities, particularly since the creation of the United States. Challenges of working with oral histories, government documents, and missionary records.  WR, HU

* HIST 160Ja / AMST 353a / WGSS 348a, Selected Topics in Lesbian and Gay History George Chauncey

Readings and discussions focus on recent studies of twentieth-century queer family life, religion, migration, race, urban politics, state regulation, and sexual culture in the United States, and help frame research questions for students to pursue in Yale's archival collections. Attention to methodology and the craft of historical writing.  WR, HU

* HIST 168Jb, Quebec and Canada from 1791 to the Present Jay Gitlin

The history of Quebec and its place within Canada from the Constitutional Act of 1791 to the present. Topics include the Rebellion of 1837, confederation, the Riel Affair, industrialization and emigration to New England, French-Canadian nationalism and culture from Abbé Groulx to the Parti Québécois and Céline Dion, and the politics of language. Readings include plays by Michel Tremblay and Antonine Maillet in translation.  WR, HU

* HIST 174Ja / AMST 451a / RLST 260a, Religion, War, and the Meaning of America Harry Stout

The relationship between religion and war in American history from colonial beginnings through Vietnam. The religious meanings of Americans at war; the mutually reinforcing influences of nationalism and religion; war as the norm of American national life; the concept of civil religion; biblical and messianic contexts of key U.S. conflicts.  HU

* HIST 177Ja / HSHM 448a / WGSS 448a, American Medicine and the Cold War Naomi Rogers

The social, cultural, and political history of American medicine from 1945 to 1960. The defeat of national health insurance; racism in health care; patient activism; the role of gender in defining medical professionalism and family health; the rise of atomic medicine; McCarthyism in medicine; and the polio vaccine trials and the making of science journalism.  WR, HU

* HIST 178Jb / HSHM 457b / HUMS 457b / PSYC 455b, Other Minds Henry Cowles and Laurie Santos

A historical and scientific perspective on what this course will refer to as "other minds." Students have the opportunity to study key scientific papers and interact with international experts on such topics as the cognitive capacities that allow humans to think of animal species as deserving of compassion and respect; why certain human groups are considered "less than" human; and what makes the human mind special. Prerequisites: one course in psychology and one course in historical perspectives, or with permission of the instructor.  SO

* HIST 179Jb / HSHM 415b, Historical Perspectives on Science and Religion Ivano Dal Prete

The engagement between science and religion from a historical standpoint and a multicultural perspective. The Islamic, Jewish, Buddhist, and Christian traditions; the roots of modern creationism; salvation expectations and the rise of modern science and technology. General knowledge of western and world history is expected.  HU

* HIST 184Jb, U.S. Foreign Policy in the American Century, 1917-2000 Raymond Parrott

Overview of the history and historiography of United States foreign policy during what is sometimes termed the American century, defined in this instance as the period between 1917 and 2000. Introduction to major themes including hegemony, isolationism, internationalism, globalization, national security, and the garrison state. Students research and produce a piece of individual scholarship.  WR, HU

* HIST 193Ja / PLSC 226a, Popular Politics in the Nineteenth-Century United States Joshua Lynn

Study of the evolution of popular politics, political culture, and political participation in the United States, from the revolutionary era through the nineteenth century. Consideration of changing conceptions of popular politics and representation in United States history. Students become familiar with the sources and methods for researching political history.  WR, HU

* HIST 196Jb, Daily Life in American Capitalism Gabriel Winant

How economic change has transformed the experience of daily life. The relationship between capitalism and ordinary routines and everyday phenomena, including: food, drink, work, sleep, sex, manners, family, and clothing. Industrial development and the creation of new sights, sounds, smells, tastes, and feelings. Focus on American experience from colonial times to the present.  WR, HU

* HIST 212Ja / ENGL 197a, The Book in Early Modern Britain Kathryn James

The influence of the book in Britain from 1475 to 1660, including both manuscript and print formats. The book as material, cultural, and political object; its role in religious, political, and social transformations of the period. Focus on objects from Yale's British history and art collections.  WR, HU

* HIST 215Jb, The Art of Biography John Gaddis

A comparative examination of successful as well as unsuccessful biographies, intended to identify both principles and pitfalls.  WR, HU

* HIST 220Ja, Grand Strategy and the Origins of the Second World War Staff

A survey of the most important literature and debates concerning the coming of the Second World War in both Europe and the Pacific. Emphasis on the comparative approach to international history and on the interplay of domestic politics, economics, and strategy. Counts toward only European distributional credit within the History major.  WR, HURP

* HIST 225Jb, Revolutionary Russia Elizabeth Bospflug

A history of the Russian Revolutionary period from 1905 through the 1920’s, with particular emphasis on the revolutions of 1917.  WR, HU

* HIST 229Ja, London, 1560-1760 Keith Wrightson

A study of London's growth between 1560 and 1760 from a modest city of perhaps 50,000 people to a metropolis with over 700,000 inhabitants. Themes include the dynamics of growth; birth and death, with particular reference to the plague; migration; household life; villages within the city; London as the center of print culture; the royal court; polite society in the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries; the "middle sort of people" and consumerism; the world of the poor; and vice and criminality. In September and in January, application for admission should be made directly to the instructors of the seminars, who will admit students to remaining vacancies in their seminars. Priority is given to applications from juniors, then seniors, majoring in History, but applications are also accepted from qualified sophomores and from students majoring in other disciplines or programs. Seminars on the history of the United States or Canada are numbered 100J to 199J; seminars on Britain and Europe are 200J to 299J; and seminars numbered 300J to 399J cover the rest of the world. Seminars numbered in the 400s address global topics; students must apply to the director of undergraduate studies in History to count a 400-level seminar toward a particular geographical distribution category.  WR, HU

* HIST 231Jb, The Dark Years: Collaboration and Resistance in Vichy France John Merriman

The concomitants of collaboration and resistance during Vichy France, 1940–44. Topics include the fall of France in 1940; the return of Pétain's "National Revolution" and its continuities with the French Right during the Third Republic; the extent and nature of resistance (in the context of pre–World War II politics); and the memory of the Vichy years and its influence on subsequent French political life.  WR, HU

* HIST 232Ja / HUMS 443a / JDST 270a / MMES 342a / RLST 201a, Medieval Jews, Christians, and Muslims In Conversation Ivan Marcus

How members of Jewish, Christian, and Muslim communities thought of and interacted with members of the other two cultures during the Middle Ages. Cultural grids and expectations each imposed on the other; the rhetoric of otherness—humans or devils, purity or impurity, and animal imagery; and models of religious community and power in dealing with the other when confronted with cultural differences. Counts toward either European or Middle Eastern distributional credit within the History major, upon application to the director of undergraduate studies.  WR, HURP
History: Preindustrial

* HIST 242Jb / CLCV 319b / MGRK 300b / WGSS 293b, The Olympic Games, Ancient and Modern George Syrimis

Introduction to the history of the Olympic Games from antiquity to the present. The mythology of athletic events in ancient Greece and the ritual, political, and social ramifications of the actual competitions. The revival of the modern Olympic movement in 1896, the political investment of the Greek state at the time, and specific games as they illustrate the convergence of athletic cultures and sociopolitical transformations in the twentieth century.  HU

* HIST 253Ja / LAST 253a, Culture, Dissidence, and Control in Golden Age Spain María Jordán

Aspects of Spanish culture and society in the Golden Age (c. 1550–1650) that demonstrate discontent, dissidence, and suggestions for reform. Emphasis on the intersection of historical and literary sources and the dynamic between popular and elite cultures.  WR, HU
History: Preindustrial

* HIST 254Jb, Time and Place in Early Modern England Keith Wrightson

Perceptions of time and place in England and their relationships to personal and social identity, c. 1500 to 1800. Cartography, chorography, antiquarianism, conventions of timekeeping, perceptions of the life course, the creation of social memory and historical narratives, representations of social place, the effects of the Reformation, iconic places, and perceptions of previously unknown places and peoples. Use of visual and textual primary sources.  WR, HU

* HIST 267Jb, War at Sea in the Age of Sail Evan Wilson

A study of European warfare at sea from 1500 to 1815. Themes include: the relationship between navies and societies; the experience of life at sea; the role of navies in the development of science, industry, and the state; the nature and limitations of sea power; theories of sea power; the emergence of British naval supremacy. Examination of different approaches to naval and military history.  WR, HU

* HIST 270Jb, Philosophy of History in Central Europe Marci Shore

Ways in which central European philosophers before, during, and after the communist period grappled with the meaning of history, the role of the individual within history, and the space for ethics within historical determinism. Philosophy of history as an aspect of, and response to, the totalitarian experiments of the twentieth century.  WR, HU

* HIST 275Ja / FILM 368a / LITR 320a / MGRK 233a, The Culture of the Cold War in Europe George Syrimis

European culture during and after the Cold War. Focus on the relation of politics and dominant ideologies to their correlative literary and cinematic aesthetics models and to popular culture. Themes include totalitarianism, Eurocommunism, decolonization, espionage, state surveillance, the nuclear threat, sports, and propaganda.  HU

* HIST 276Ja / HUMS 260a / RSEE 267a / RSEE 276, Modernism and Postmodernism in Eastern Europe Marci Shore

Intellectual history of twentieth-and twenty-first century literature and philosophy in Eastern Europe, exploring modernism, postmodernism, and the significance of the break between them. Some background in East European history, or intellectual history, literary theory, or continental philosophy expected.  WR, HU

* HIST 277Ja, Memory and History in Modern Europe Jennifer Allen

An interdisciplinary study of memory as both a tool in and an agent of modern European history. Collective memory; the media of memory; the organization and punctuation of time through commemorative practices; memory of the Holocaust, decolonization, the revolution of 1968, the fall of the Berlin Wall, and the end of the Cold War.  WR, HU

* HIST 278Ja / JDST 336a, The Culture of Acculturation David Sorkin

Noninstitutional forms of Jewish expression and identity in modern Europe explored through the works of intellectuals, writers, and artists. The emergence of a bourgeois Jewish culture from 1648 to 1870, including self-representation in systematic thought, history, fiction, and painting; innovative ways in which such representations were revised by intellectuals and artists of succeeding generations; the influence of political trends and cultural developments in European society.  HU

* HIST 282Jb, Russian Economic History from Serfdom to Socialism, Perestroika to Putin Christopher Miller

Russia, as a testing ground for many of the most radical theories about how to run a modern economy over the past century and a half. Consideration of Tsarist industrialization; debates about abolishing money in the early Bolshevik state; the collectivization of nearly all farmland under Stalin; the construction of a centrally planned socialist economy; and the rapid reintroduction of market prices under Boris Yeltsin and Yegor Gaidar.  WR, HU

* HIST 283Jb / JDST 352b, Anti-Judaism, Antisemitism, and Anti-Zionism Shaun Halper

Investigation to further understanding of the origins, causes, motives, and long history of antisemitism. Antisemitic topics include: its relationship to pre-modern anti-Judaism and contemporary anti-Zionism; its connection to religion and modern secular ideologies like nationalism, fascism, and socialism; how it differs from other forms of racism, hatred, and bigotry; and how its resurgence relates to anti-Zionist political activism.  HU

* HIST 299Jb / HUMS 192b, Intellectuals and Power in Europe Terence Renaud

The role of intellectuals in politics, with a focus on social, cultural, and political upheavals in Europe during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Whether intellectuals betray a higher spiritual calling when they enter politics or merely strive to put their own theories into practice. Modern answers to the question of why ideas and intellectuals matter.  HU

* HIST 302Ja, Latin American Cities in the Twentieth Century Staff

Twentieth-century Latin American cities in local and transnational perspective. Critique of the discourse of urban crisis. Topics include urban planning and public space; industrialization, labor, and populism; race, gender, and migration; informal settlements; Cold War urbanism; urban mega-events; and contemporary problems of crime, security, and segregation.  WR, HU

* HIST 307Jb, The Confucian Dilemma in the Later Centuries Annping Chin

How the political experience of the scholar-officials in China’s second millennium helped to revise and retool the relationship of self, society, and the state that Confucians had articulated in the previous centuries.    WR, HU

* HIST 308Jb, History and Politics in Early China Staff

How the history and politics of early China came to shape political thinking and policy debates in two thousand years of imperial rule.  WR, HU

* HIST 309Ja / EAST 309a, Uses of the Past in Modern China Denise Ho

Modern China's use of the past in state-sponsored narratives of nation, in attempts to construct heritage by elites and intellectuals, and in grassroots projects of remembrance. Theories on history and memory; primary sources in English translation; case studies from twentieth-century China. Interdisciplinary readings in art history, anthropology, cultural studies, and history.  WR, HU

* HIST 326Jb / EAST 326b, Yale and Japan Daniel Botsman

Exploration of Yale's rich historical connections to Japan. Focus on use of the University's museum and library collections to learn about various aspects of the Japanese past, from ancient times to the post-World War II era. Knowledge of Japanese helpful but not required.  WR, HU

* HIST 333Jb / PLSC 373b / SOCY 328b, Politics and Change in Contemporary China Ralph Thaxton

Advanced study of the politics and changes in contemporary China. Emphasis on the post 1949 period, paying special attention to political memory, and the role of memory in shaping resistance, protest, and contention.  SO

* HIST 334Ja / ER&M 364a / LAST 334a, Ethnicity, Nationalism, and the Politics of Knowledge in Latin America Marcela Echeverri Munoz

Examination of ethnicity and nationalism in Latin America through the political lens of social knowledge. Comparative analysis of the evolution of symbolic, economic, and political perspectives on indigenous peoples, peasants, and people of African descent from the nineteenth century to the present. Consideration of the links between making ethnic categories in the social sciences and in literature and the rise of political mechanisms of participation and representation that have characterized the emergence of cultural politics.  WR, HURP

* HIST 347Jb / MMES 442b, From the Great Game to the Great Satan: Iran, Afghanistan, and Central Asia in the Age of Empires Abbas Amanat

Encounters of Iran and its neighbors with Britain, Russia, and the United States since the nineteenth century. Special attention to Western imperial interests in the region and to indigenous forms of resistance to imperial hegemony. Topics include travel, diplomacy, war and hegemony, postcolonial sovereignty, the Cold War and regional power, and the Islamic Republic's demonizing of America.  WR, HU

* HIST 364Jb / LAST 366b, The Modern Caribbean Anne Eller

History of the greater Caribbean area as its citizens emerged from struggles against slavery and forged new projects for independence. The historical unity of the Caribbean explored across linguistic, imperial, and national lines. The region's central role in global events, its democratic struggles, and its diasporas and their influence.  WR, HU

* HIST 365Jb, History of the Ottoman Empire, 1770–1920 Veysel Simsek

Survey of the political, social, and intellectual history of the Ottoman Empire from the end of the eighteenth century to its demise after the first World War. Close study of the tremendous transformation that the Ottoman state and society experienced during a period when astounding developments were happening in the global context. Counts toward pre-industrial distributional credit within the major, upon application to the director of undergraduate studies.   WR, HU

* HIST 372Ja / ER&M 342a / LAST 372a, Revolutionary Change and Cold War in Latin America Gilbert Joseph

Analysis of revolutionary movements in Latin America against the backdrop of the Cold War. Critical examination of popular images and orthodox interpretations. An interdisciplinary study of the process of revolutionary change and cold war at the grassroots level.  WR, HU

* HIST 382Ja, Vietnamese History from Earliest Times to 1920 Benedict Kiernan

Evolution of a Vietnamese national identity, from Chinese colonization to medieval statehood, to French conquest and capitalist development. The roles of Confucianism, Buddhism, gender, and ethnicity in the Southeast Asian context.  WR, HU
History: Preindustrial

* HIST 384Jb / MMES 172b / NELC 403b, The Middle East between Crusaders and Mongols Adel Allouche

The impact of the Crusades and the Mongol conquests on the Islamic Middle East. Political, social, and economic changes in the region from the eleventh century to the middle of the fourteenth. Emphasis on the rise of new dynasties as a result of changes in the ethnic mosaic of the Middle East.  WR, HU
History: Preindustrial

* HIST 387Ja / AFST 487a, West African Islam: Jihad Tradition and Its Pacifist Opponents Lamin Sanneh

The influence of Islam on state and society, and the encounters of Muslim Africans first with non-Muslim societies in Africa and then with the modern West in the colonial and postcolonial periods. Focus on Muslim religious attitudes and responses to the secular national state and to the Western tradition of the separation of church and state.  WR, HU

* HIST 388Ja / AFST 486a, Slavery and the Slave Trade in Africa Robert Harms

The slave trade from the African perspective. Analysis of why slavery developed in Africa and how it operated. The long-term social, political, and economic effects of the Atlantic slave trade.  WR, HU
History: Preindustrial

* HIST 398Jb / MMES 173b / NELC 404b, Mamluk Egypt Adel Allouche

A study of the Mamluks, manumitted slaves initially imported to Egypt for military service who established their own rule over Egypt and Syria (1250–1517). Focus on the structure and workings of the Mamluk state. Military, political, economic, and social factors that contributed to the grandeur and, later, the decline of the Mamluk period in Egypt and its conquest by the Ottoman Turks.  WR, HU
History: Preindustrial

* HIST 409Ja / AFST 150a, Global Black Power Daniel Magaziner

The global dimension of black people's struggles for self-determination and authority from the late eighteenth century to the present. Various experiences of, and responses to, slavery, emancipation, segregation, scientific racism, and enlightenment democracy. The Haitian revolution, the Back to Africa movement, Garveyite nationalism, religious expression, African independence, armed revolution, and urban politics.  WR, HU

* HIST 413Jb / HSHM 420b / PSYC 436b, History of Addiction Henry Cowles

A survey of the understanding and treatment of addiction in the modern period. Psychology and psychiatry; alcoholism, abstinence, and prohibition; gambling and other behavioral addictions; recent work on habit formation; and addiction narratives in literature and film. Readings include primary texts from a range of scientific and medical fields as well as from court cases, political debates, and social and religious movements.   WR, HU

* HIST 417Ja / HSHM 423a, Biomedical Futures Since 1945 Joanna Radin

Ideas about biomedicine's promises and perils as they have been realized differently across place and time. Visions of the future of biomedicine that have shaped public policy, medical practice, and therapeutic innovation. Speculation about what medicine would come to look like in time. Ideas from literature, film, advertisements, policy documents, and medical texts around the world since World War II.  WR, HU

* HIST 427Ja, Indigenous Religious Histories Tiffany Hale

Consideration of the challenges associated with studying indigenous religious history in a global context, as well as the changing social, political, and legal dimensions of religious practice among native groups over time. Organized thematically, topics include ethnohistory, environmental history, indigenous studies, the history of anthropology, and religious studies, as well as readings of primary sources that include personal testimony and oral narrative.  WR, HU

* HIST 456Ja, Experiments in Writing History Sophia Rosenfeld

Key questions about how historians approach evidence, narrative, time, space, subject matter, and voice. Readings include classic examples of experimental and noteworthy history writing. Opportunity for framing historical research questions and crafting a substantial historical paper. none  WR, HU

* HIST 458Ja, Financial Crises in History Christopher Miller

Examination of the causes, effects, and context of financial crises in historical perspective. Focus on crises in the 20th and 21st centuries, as well as the historical legacies and institutions that shape modern finance. Students study whether and how various frames of analysis—economic, political, and intellectual, for example—can help explain financial crises.  WR, HU

* HIST 462Jb, The American Revolution in Global Perspective Steven Pincus

Exploration of the American Revolution in the context of Spanish American independence movements; the French and Haitian Revolutions; American developments in terms of sovereign debt crises around the world; and the globalization of trade, in particular European commerce with Spanish America, India, and China.  WR, HU, SO

* HIST 463Ja / HSHM 405a, Historical Perspectives on Gender and Technology Jenna Healey

Exploration of the historical connection between gender and technology; how gender has influenced the design, production, and consumption of technology, as well as the ways in which medical technologies have altered ideas about sex and gender. Topics include domestic design, cyborg feminism, reproductive technologies, sex reassignment surgery, and women in computing.  HU

* HIST 465Ja / HSHM 456a, History of Human Experimentation Since 1800 Staff

This course traces the history of human experimentation from early debates about the nature of experimental medicine in the nineteenth century to the emergence of institutionalized bioethics in the late twentieth century. Topics include the role of race in human subject research, the development of IRBs (institutional review boards), and the globalization of clinical trials.  WR, HU

* HIST 467Ja / HSHM 422a, Cartography, Territory, and Identity William Rankin

Exploration of how maps shape assumptions about territory, land, sovereignty, and identity. The relationship between scientific cartography and conquest, the geography of statecraft, religious cartographies, encounters between Western and non-Western cultures, and reactions to cartographic objectivity. Students make their own maps. No previous experience in cartography or graphic design required.  WR, HU

* HIST 478Jb, The Global Teenager Miranda Sachs

Historical development of the category of the teenager across the globe, exploring similarities and differences in the teenage experience across a variety of regional contexts. Topics include the impact of modern medicine on defining the category; teenage interaction with consumer culture including film, music, and fashion; and youth protest movements. Students produce a research paper on a historical facet of teendom.   WR, HU

* HIST 481Jb, Grand Narratives in Global History Fabian Drixler

Analysis of recent attempts to find patterns and unifying narratives in the complexity of world history. Topics include the decline of violence, economic divergences and global inequality, geographic determinism, climate and history, human history and the biosphere, demographic and evolutionary perspectives on history, history as neurochemistry, and the shifting shape of world history from different geographical vantage points.  WR, HU

* HIST 483Ja / PLSC 161a, Studies in Grand Strategy II Elizabeth Bradley, Paul Kennedy, Charles Hill, John Gaddis, and David Brooks

The study of grand strategy, of how individuals and groups can accomplish large ends with limited means. During the fall semester, students put into action the ideas studied in the spring semester by applying concepts of grand strategy to present day issues. Admission is by application only; the cycle for the current year is closed. Prerequisite: PLSC 321. Previous study courses in political science, history, global affairs, or subjects with broad interdisciplinary relevance encouraged.  SO

Writing Tutorial and Senior Essay Courses

* HIST 494a or b, Individual Writing Tutorial Alan Mikhail

For students who wish, under the supervision of a member of the faculty, to investigate an area of history not covered by regular departmental offerings. The course may be used for research or for directed reading. It is normally taken only once. The emphasis of the tutorial is on writing a long essay or several short ones. To apply for admission, a student should present the following materials to the director of undergraduate studies on the Friday before schedules are due: a prospectus of the work proposed, a bibliography, and a letter of support from a member of the History department faculty who will direct the tutorial. A form to simplify this process is available from the office of the director of undergraduate studies.

* HIST 495a or b and HIST 496a or b, The Senior Essay Jennifer Klein

All senior History majors should attend the mandatory senior essay meeting in early September at a time and location to be announced in the online Senior Essay Handbook. The senior essay is a required one- or two-term independent research project conducted under the guidance of a faculty adviser. As a significant work of primary-source research, it serves as the capstone project of the History major. Students writing the one-term senior essay enroll in HIST 497 (see description), not HIST 495 and 496. The two-term essay takes the form of a substantial article, not longer than 12,500 words (approximately forty to fifty double-spaced typewritten pages). This is a maximum limit; there is no minimum requirement. Length will vary according to the topic and the historical techniques employed. Students writing the two-term senior essay who expect to graduate in May enroll in HIST 495 during the fall term and complete their essays in HIST 496 in the spring term. December graduates enroll in HIST 495 in the spring term and complete their essays in HIST 496 during the following fall term; students planning to begin their essay in the spring term should notify the senior essay director by early December. Each student majoring in History must present a completed Statement of Intention, signed by a department member who has agreed to serve as adviser, to the History Department Undergraduate Registrar by the dates indicated in the Senior Essay Handbook. Blank statement forms are available from the History Undergraduate Registrar and in the Senior Essay handbook. Students enrolled in HIST 495 submit to the administrator in 237 HGS a two-to-three-page analysis of a single primary source, a draft bibliographic essay, and at least ten pages of the essay by the deadlines listed in the Senior Essay Handbook. Those who meet these requirements receive a temporary grade of SAT for the fall term, which will be changed to the grade received by the essay upon its completion. Failure to meet any requirement may result in the student’s being asked to withdraw from HIST 495. Students enrolled in HIST 496 must submit a completed essay to 211 HGS no later than 5 p.m. on the dates indicated in the Senior Essay Handbook. Essays submitted after 5 p.m. will be considered as having been turned in on the following day. If the essay is submitted late without an excuse from the student's residential college dean, the penalty is one letter grade for the first day and one-half letter grade for each of the next two days past the deadline. No essay that would otherwise pass will be failed because it is late, but late essays will not be considered for departmental or Yale College prizes. All senior departmental essays will be judged by members of the faculty other than the adviser. In order to graduate from Yale College, a student majoring in History must achieve a passing grade on the departmental essay.

* HIST 497a or b, One-Term Senior Essay Jennifer Klein

All senior History majors should attend the mandatory senior essay meeting in early September at a time and location to be announced in the online Senior Essay Handbook. The senior essay is a required one- or two-term independent research project conducted under the guidance of a faculty adviser. As a significant work of primary-source research, it serves as the capstone project of the History major. Seniors writing a two-term senior essay do not register for HIST 497; instead, they register for HIST 495 and HIST 496 (see description). History majors may choose to write a one-term independent senior essay in the first term of their senior year and register for HIST 497; however, students who choose the one-term senior essay option are not eligible for Distinction in the Major. The one-term essay must include a substantial research paper of no more than 6,250 words (approximately twenty-five pages) based on primary sources, along with a bibliographic essay and bibliography. Seniors enroll during the fall term of senior year; only History majors graduating in December may enroll during the spring term (or seventh term of enrollment). In rare circumstances, with the permission of the adviser and the Senior Essay Director, a student enrolled in HIST 497 during the fall term may withdraw from the course according to Yale College regulations on course withdrawal and enroll in the spring term. Each student enrolled in HIST 497 must present a completed Statement of Intention, signed by a department member who has agreed to serve as adviser, to the History Department Undergraduate Registrar by the dates indicated in the Senior Essay Handbook. Blank statement forms are available from the History Undergraduate Registrar and in the Senior Essay Handbook, available on the History department Web site. Additional details about the senior essay, including the submission deadlines are included in the Senior Essay Handbook. Essays submitted after 5 p.m. on the due date will be considered as having been turned in on the following day. If the essay is submitted late without an excuse from the student's residential college dean, the penalty is one letter grade for the first day and one-half letter grade for each of the next two days past the deadline. No essay that would otherwise pass will be failed because it is late. All senior departmental essays will be judged by members of the faculty other than the adviser. In order to graduate from Yale College, a student majoring in History must achieve a passing grade on the departmental essay. Permission of the departmental Senior Essay Director and of the student’s faculty adviser is required for enrollment.