Director of undergraduate studies: Woo-Kyoung Ahn, 319 SSS, 432-9626,;


Professors Woo-kyoung Ahn, Stephen Anderson, Amy Arnsten, John Bargh, Paul Bloom, Thomas Brown, Tyrone Cannon, BJ Casey, Joseph Chang, Marvin Chun, Margaret Clark, Ravi Dhar, John Dovidio, Carol Fowler (Adjunct), Tamar Gendler, Jeannette Ickovics, Marcia Johnson, Jutta Joormann, Dan Kahan, Alan Kazdin, Frank Keil, Joshua Knobe, Marianne LaFrance, Linda Mayes, Gregory McCarthy, Nathan Novemsky, Jennifer Richeson, Peter Salovey, Laurie Santos, Brian Scholl, Jane Taylor, Tom Tyler, Fred Volkmar, Victor Vroom, Karen Wynn

Associate Professors Robert Kerns, Jr., Maria Piñango, David Rand, Mary Schwab-Stone

Assistant Professors Arielle Baskin-Sommers, Steve Wohn Chang, Yarrow Dunham, Dylan Gee, Avram Holmes, Hedy Kober, Gregory Samanez-Larkin

Lecturers Nancy Close, Nelson Donegan, Carla Horwitz, Kristi Lockhart, Mary O'Brien, Matthias Siemer

The introduction to psychology is PSYC 110, a general survey course. PSYC 110 is a prerequisite for other 100-level courses only if indicated in their course descriptions; it is a prerequisite for all courses numbered 200 or above.

Courses in the department are organized so that they are best taken in several parallel sequences. Courses numbered from 120 to 190 and ending in a zero are core survey courses that introduce students to major areas of psychology and provide additional background for more advanced courses. These courses represent major content areas of psychology; students should sample broadly from them before specializing. Courses numbered from 200 to 209 focus on statistics. Courses numbered from 210 to 299 teach general methodology or data collection in various areas of psychology. Courses numbered from 300 to 399 are more advanced courses in a particular specialization. Senior seminars, whose enrollment is limited to twenty students, are numbered from 400 to 489. These seminars are best taken once a student has appropriate background. Courses numbered from 490 to 499 are special tutorial courses that require permission of the adviser and the director of undergraduate studies.

The major for the Class of 2018 and previous classes Students in the Class of 2018 and previous classes may fulfill the requirements of the major that were in place when they entered the major in Psychology, as described in previous editions of this bulletin. Alternatively, they may fulfill the requirements for the major as described below for the Class of 2019 and subsequent classes.

The standard major for the Class of 2019 and subsequent classes The major in Psychology requires twelve term courses beyond PSYC 110, including the senior requirement.

  1. Because psychology is so diverse a subject, every student is required to take four courses from the list below. Two of these courses must be from the social science point of view in psychology and two must be from the natural science point of view. At least one from each group must be a course designated as "Core" in the course listings. Students are expected to take their two core courses as early as possible in the major, normally within two terms after declaring their major.

    Social science: PSYC 125, PSYC 126, 127, 128, PSYC 132, 140, PSYC 141, 150,151, 180PSYC 181, 182, PSYC 232L, 250, PSYC 280L, PSYC 313, 330, PSYC 332, 334, 342, 355

    Natural science: PSYC 120, 130, PSYC 135, PSYC 137, 147PSYC 149, 160, PSYC 161, 162, PSYC 171190, PSYC 230L, 233, PSYC 260, 270, PSYC 304, PSYC 315, 318PSYC 320, 321, PSYC 322, PSYC 324PSYC 327331PSYC 337, 350, 352,  372, 376

  2. Because statistical techniques and the mode of reasoning they employ are fundamental in psychology, a course in statistics (PSYC 200) is required, preferably prior to the senior year. A student may substitute STAT 103 for PSYC 200 or may substitute an examination arranged with the instructor of PSYC 200 for the course requirement. Students may take the examination only one time.

  3. To assure some direct experience in collecting and analyzing data, students must elect at least one course, preferably prior to the senior year, in which research is planned and carried out. Courses numbered between 210 and 299 fulfill this research methods requirement.

  4. Students may, with permission of the director of undergraduate studies, count up to three term courses in other related departments toward the major. Appropriate courses are rare and students should consult with the director of undergraduate studies in Psychology about selecting outside courses. 

Students interested in research are encouraged to take an independent study course (PSYC 493) as early as the sophomore year. Students may also take PSYC 495 for one-half course credit of independent research per term with prior permission of the faculty adviser and the director of undergraduate studies. These independent study courses are graded P/F. No more than a total of three credits from PSYC 490–499 combined may count toward the major.

B.S. degree The B.S. degree is awarded to students who conduct empirical research through PSYC 499 during senior year. An empirical research project normally includes designing an experiment and collecting and analyzing the data.

B.A. degree The B.A. degree is typically awarded to students who conduct a nonempirical literature review. There are no restrictions in the research format for the B.A.

Senior requirement Majors are required to earn two course credits from courses numbered PSYC 400–499. At least one of these courses (excluding PSYC 490-495, which can only be taken P/F) must be taken during the senior year, for which a student must write a substantial final paper (a minimum of 5,000 words) and receive a letter grade.

Neuroscience track in Psychology for the Class of 2019 and subsequent classes Students with a major interest in neuroscience may wish to elect the neuroscience track. Such students are considered Psychology majors for whom the requirements have been modified to accommodate their interests, and to reflect the multidisciplinary nature of modern neuroscience and psychology. Given the broad nature of the field of neuroscience, students may wish to concentrate their studies in one area of the field (e.g., behavioral, cellular and molecular, cognitive, affective, social, clinical, or developmental). Interested students are encouraged to meet with the track adviser, Avram Holmes, 402 SSS, 436-9240,  Majors in the neuroscience track meet with the track adviser at the beginning of each term in their junior and senior years.

Requirements for the neuroscience track are the same as for the standard major, with the following exceptions:

  1. Two terms of introductory biology are required for the major, either MCDB 120 or BIOL 101 and 102, and either E&EB 122 or BIOL 103 and 104. Students who have scored 5 on the Advanced Placement test in Biology may place out of these courses.
  2. Students must take PSYC 160 or PSYC 170 and a data-collection course chosen from PSYC 230L, PSYC 260, or 270. MCDB 320 may substitute for the PSYC 160 or PSYC 170 requirement, or MCDB 320 and 321L may substitute for the PSYC 230L, PSYC 260, or 270 requirement, but not both. If MCDB 320 is substituted for a Psychology course, it cannot be counted as one of the two advanced science courses outside the department (see item 4 below).
  3. As required for the standard major, students in the neuroscience track must take two courses from the social science list above, at least one of which must be designated as "Core" in the course listings. Students in the neuroscience track must also take a course from the natural science list in addition to the courses specified in item 2 above.
  4. At least two advanced science courses must be chosen from Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology and Ecology and Evolutionary Biology courses numbered 200 and above that deal with human and/or animal biology; recommended courses include MCDB 200, 202, 205, 210, MCDB 240, 300, 315, 320, E&EB 220, 225, and E&EB 240. Certain courses outside of these departments may also meet the advanced science requirement, including BENG 350, BENG 421, CPSC 475, MB&B 300, 301, 420, 435, 443, 452, MATH 222, 225, 230, 231, and STAT 241. Other courses may qualify for this requirement with permission of the neuroscience track adviser. Laboratory courses do not count toward the advanced science requirement. Students should note that many advanced science courses have prerequisites that must be taken first.
  5. The senior requirement for the neuroscience track is the same as for the standard major, except that the two required course credits from PSYC 400–499 must have neuroscience content. Students pursuing the B.S. degree in the track must carry out a neuroscientific empirical project in PSYC 499 and must be supervised by a faculty member within the neuroscience area of the Psychology department. Students who wish to work with an affiliated faculty member studying neuroscience outside the department must obtain permission from the neuroscience track adviser.

Credit/D/Fail No more than two term courses taken Credit/D/Fail may be applied toward the major; no 200-level course taken Credit/D/Fail may be applied toward the major.

Departmental advisers Schedules for all majors must be discussed with, and approved by, the director of undergraduate studies or the adviser for the neuroscience track in Psychology. Only then may a schedule be submitted to the residential college dean's office. For questions concerning credits for courses taken at other institutions or at Yale but outside the Department of Psychology, students should consult with the director of undergraduate studies. For questions concerning the neuroscience track, students should consult with the adviser for the neuroscience track in Psychology.

Distinction in the Major To be considered for Distinction in the Major, students must submit a senior essay to the Psychology department at least one week before the last day of classes in the term when the course used for the senior essay is taken. Senior essays that are submitted after the deadline will be subject to grade penalties. Senior essays considered for Distinction in the Major are graded by a second reader and the essay adviser.

Computer Science and Psychology major The interdepartmental major in Computer Science and Psychology may be considered by students with interests lying squarely between the two disciplines. See under Computer Science and Psychology for more information.



Prerequisite PSYC 110

Number of courses 12 courses beyond prereq (incl senior req)

Specific course required PSYC 200

Distribution of coursesB.A. or B.S. —2 social science courses and 2 natural science courses, as specified; 1 course numbered PSYC 210–299

Substitution permitted For PSYC 200, STAT 103 or exam arranged with instructor; up to 3 relevant courses in other depts, with DUS permission

Senior requirementB.A.—1 course credit from PSYC 400-489 or 499 taken during senior year; 1 additional course credit from PSYC 400-499; B.S.— PSYC 499 taken during senior year; 1 additional course credit from PSYC 400-499


Prerequisite PSYC 110

Number of courses 12 courses beyond prereq (incl senior req)

Specific courses required MCDB 120 or BIOL 101 and 102; E&EB 122 or BIOL 103 and 104; PSYC 160 or PSYC 170; PSYC 200; PSYC 230L, PSYC 260, or 270

Distribution of courses B.A. or B.S. — 2 social science courses and 1 natural science course, as specified; at least 2 advanced science courses, as specified

Substitution permitted MCDB 320 for PSYC 160 or PSYC 170, or MCDB 320 and 321L for PSYC 230L, PSYC 260, or 270; for PSYC 200, STAT 103 or exam arranged with instructor

Senior requirement B.A.—1 course credit from PSYC 400-489 or 499 with neuroscience content taken during senior year; 1 additional course credit from PSYC 400-499 with neuroscience content; B.S.PSYC 499 taken during senior year, with neuroscience content in a research project; 1 addtional course credit from PSYC 400–499 with neuroscience content


PSYC 110a or b, Introduction to Psychology Staff

A survey of major psychological approaches to the biological, cognitive, and social bases of behavior.  SO

* PSYC 125a / CHLD 125a / EDST 125a, Child Development Nancy Close and Carla Horwitz

The reading of selected material with supervised participant-observer experience in infant programs, a day-care and kindergarten center, or a family day-care program. Regularly scheduled seminar discussions emphasize both theory and practice. An assumption of the course is that it is not possible to understand children—their behavior and development—without understanding their parents and the relationship between child and parents. The focus is on infancy as well as early childhood. Enrollment limited to juniors and seniors.  WR, SO
Psychology: Social Science

* PSYC 127a or b / CHLD 127a or b / EDST 127a or b, Theory and Practice of Early Childhood Education Carla Horwitz

Development of curricula for preschool children—infants through six-year-olds—in light of current research and child development theory.  WR, SORP
Psychology: Social Science

* PSYC 128b / CHLD 128b / EDST 128b, Language, Literacy, and Play Nancy Close and Carla Horwitz

The complicated role of play in the development of language and literacy skills among preschool-aged children. Topics include social-emotional, cross-cultural, cognitive, and communicative aspects of play.  WR, SORP
Psychology: Social Science

PSYC 130a / CGSC 110a, Introduction to Cognitive Science Brian Scholl

An introduction to the interdisciplinary study of how the mind works. Discussion of tools, theories, and assumptions from psychology, computer science, neuroscience, linguistics, and philosophy.  SO
Psychology: Core
Psychology: Natural Science

PSYC 140a / EDST 140, Developmental Psychology Frank Keil

An introduction to research and theory on the development of perception, action, emotion, personality, language, and cognition from a cognitive science perspective. Focus on birth to adolescence in humans and other species. PSYC 110SO
Psychology: Core
Psychology: Social Science

PSYC 147a, Animal Models of Clinical Disorders Nelson Donegan

An interdisciplinary approach to understanding and treating psychiatric disorders, integrating clinical psychology, psychiatry, and advances in basic neuroscience. Focus on how research with animal models can advance our understanding of psychiatric disorders and generate more effective treatments for patients. Topics include drug addiction, depression, Parkinson's disease, and schizophrenia.  SC, SO
Psychology: Natural Science

PSYC 150b / EDST 160, Social Psychology John Bargh

Study of social cognition, attitudes and persuasion, group processes, intergroup processes, prosocial behavior, aggression, and conformity. Theories, methodology, and applications of social psychology. PSYC 110SO
Psychology: Core
Psychology: Social Science

PSYC 151a / EDST 150a, Theory and Practice of Emotional Intelligence Marc Brackett

The role of emotions and emotional intelligence in everyday life and in education. Why emotions matter; how emotional intelligence is defined, measured, and taught; social and emotional learning. Research, theory, educational practices, and government policies that promote students' social, emotional, and academic competence from preschool through high school.  SO

PSYC 160b, The Human Brain Gregory McCarthy

Introduction to the neural bases of human psychological function, including social, cognitive, and affective processing. Preparation for more advanced courses in cognitive and social neuroscience. Topics include memory, reward processing, neuroeconomics, individual differences, emotion, social inferences, and clinical disorders. Neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, and neuropharmacology are also introduced.  SC
Psychology: Core
Psychology: Natural Science

PSYC 162b, Evolution of Cooperation David Rand

Exploration of how the “selfish” process of evolution could have given rise to “altruistic” cooperation, and our willingness to invest time, money, and effort to help others. Evolutionary game theory and empirical/experimental data on human behavior combined to understand cooperation, with introduction to economic games such as the Prisoner’s Dilemma, evolutionary theories such as reciprocity, kin selection, and group selection, and psychological motivations such as fairness, altruism, and spite.  SO

PSYC 180b / EDST 180b, Abnormal Psychology Jutta Joormann

The major forms of psychopathology that appear in childhood and adult life. Topics include the symptomatology of mental disorders; their etiology from psychological, biological, and sociocultural perspectives; and issues pertaining to diagnosis and treatment.  SO

PSYC 182a / CGSC 282a / PHIL 182a, Perspectives on Human Nature Joshua Knobe

Comparison of philosophical and psychological perspectives on human nature. Nietzsche on morality, paired with contemporary work on the psychology of moral judgment; Marx on religion, paired with systematic research on the science of religious belief; Schopenhauer paired with social psychology on happiness.  HU

PSYC 190a, Introduction to Clinical Neuroscience Tyrone Cannon

The biological bases of psychopathology, with attention to the interplay of biological and psychological factors. Research and theory regarding the role of biological influences such as genetics, neuronal physiology and signaling, and psychopharmacology in the major classes of mental disorders. Discussion of mood and anxiety disorders, schizophrenia, addictions, personality disorders, eating disorders, and autism.  SC
Psychology: Core
Psychology: Natural Science

PSYC 200b, Statistics Dylan Gee

Measures of central tendency, variability, association, and the application of probability concepts in determining the significance of research findings.  QR

PSYC 233a, Research Methods in Cognition and Emotion Matthias Siemer

Current methods of empirical research in the psychological study of human emotion and its regulation. Focus on cognitive-experimental approaches. Students design a study on a topic related to emotion regulation, conduct an experiment, collect data, and perform statistical analyses. Prerequisites: PSYC 110 or 131 and a course in statistics, or with permission of instructor.  SO

* PSYC 235b, Research Methods in Psychology Woo-kyoung Ahn

Introduction to general principles and strategies of psychological research. Topics include generating and testing hypotheses, laboratory and field experiments, scale construction, sampling, archival methods, case studies, ethics and politics of research, and Internet and cross-cultural methods. Hands-on research experience in laboratories. Prerequisites: PSYC 200 or STAT 103, or permission of instructor.  WR, SO

PSYC 250a, Research Methods in Clinical Psychology Arielle Baskin-Sommers

Introduction to the underpinnings, processes, and methods of scientific research utilized in clinical psychology. Rationale for various methods, generating and testing hypotheses, nonhuman animal models, laboratory and applied studies, assessment methods, ethical issues, protection of participants, and research findings in relation to public life and policy.  SO
Psychology: ResearchMethods
Psychology: Social Science

* PSYC 270a or b, Research Methods in Behavioral Neuroscience Nelson Donegan

Laboratory course in which students design and conduct research to study brain function and behavior. Emphasis on hands-on participation in behavioral and neuroscience techniques. Prerequisites: PSYC 160 or 170, and a course in statistics, or with permission of instructor.  SC
Psychology: Natural Science
Psychology: ResearchMethods

PSYC 318b / LING 220b, General Phonetics Jason Shaw

Investigation of possible ways to describe the speech sounds of human languages. Acoustics and physiology of speech; computer synthesis of speech; practical exercises in producing and transcribing sounds.  SO
Psychology: Natural Science

PSYC 321b, Psychopharmacology Thomas Brown

Study of therapeutic and recreational drugs that affect the central nervous system and influence mood, cognition, perception, and behavior. Drugs considered vary from psychotropic to hypnotic to narcotic. Prerequisite: PSYC 160 or 170 or equivalent, or permission of instructor.  SC
Psychology: Natural Science

PSYC 331b / LING 231b, Neurolinguistics Maria Piñango and Sara Sanchez-Alonso

The study of language as a cognitive neuroscience. The interaction between linguistic theory and neurological evidence from brain damage, degenerative diseases (e.g., Alzheimer's disease), mental illness (e.g., schizophrenia), neuroimaging, and neurophysiology. The connection of language as a neurocognitive system to other systems such as memory and music.  SO

* PSYC 334a / CHLD 334a, Developmental Psychopathology Fred Volkmar, Eli Lebowitz, and Denis Sukhodolsky

Study of developmental psychopathology during childhood and adolescence, team taught by a child psychiatrist and three psychologists. Topics include: aspects of normal development, assessment methods, clinical disorders, treatment, and legal and social policy issues. Review of normative development, followed by discussion of theoretical approaches to understanding developmental aspects of common mental health conditions in childhood. Attention to treatment models as well as relevant issues of culture and ethnicity in the expression of psychopathology. PSYC 130, 140, 180, or equivalent, or with permission of instructor. 

PSYC 342a / WGSS 315a, Psychology of Gender Marianne LaFrance

Exploration of the relationship between gender and psychological processes at individual, interpersonal, institutional, and cross-cultural levels.  SO

* PSYC 350b / CHLD 350b, Autism and Related Disorders Fred Volkmar and James McPartland

Weekly seminar focusing on autism and related disorders of socialization. A series of lectures on topics in etiology, diagnosis and assessment, treatment and advocacy, and social neuroscience methods; topics cover infancy through adulthood. Supervised experience in the form of placement in a school, residence, or treatment setting for individuals with autism spectrum disorders. Details about admission to the course are explained at the first course meeting. Prerequisite: an introductory psychology course.  SO
Psychology: Natural Science

PSYC 352a / CGSC 352a, Arrested or Adaptive Development in the Adolescent Brain BJ Casey

Study of empirical and theoretical accounts of adolescent-specific changes in the brain and in behavior that relate to the development of self control. Discussions will focus on adaptive and arrested adolescent brain development in the context of relevant legal, social, and health policy issues. Prerequisities: PSYC 110 and PSYC 160.  SC

* PSYC 372a / LING 490a / PSYC 221, Research Methods in Linguistics Raffaella Zanuttini

An introduction to research methods in linguistics. Observational and experimental approaches to research in the field. Topics include collection and organization of linguistic data, basic field methods, and use of language corpora and databases. Introduction to research in language acquisition and language change. Prerequisites: one course in syntax and one course in phonology.

PSYC 376a, Learning and Memory Thomas Brown

The basic facts, general principles, and theories that describe how higher animals, from mice to humans, are changed by their experiences. The historically separate fields of learning and memory research desegregated under a neuroscientific perspective that recognizes the evolutionary continuity among higher animals. Prerequisites: introductory courses in biology and psychology, or permission of instructor.  SC, SO
Psychology: Natural Science

* PSYC 402a, Topics in Infant Studies Karen Wynn

Advanced topics in infant cognitive, social, and emotional development. Attention to infant attachment strategies as well as maternal and paternal investment and attachment. Perspectives from biology; anthropology; and developmental, comparative, clinical, physiological, and evolutionary psychology.  SO

* PSYC 405a, Social Emotions Margaret Clark

The nature and function of emotions in social context. How emotions such as happiness, sadness, fear, and anger shape how we relate to others; how the ways in which we relate to others shape our experience and expression of these emotions. The nature and functions of additional emotions that seem to arise only within the context of social relationships: feelings of hurt, guilt, gratitude, empathic joy, and empathic sadness.  SO

* PSYC 406a / CGSC 406a, The Evolution of Morality Mark Sheskin

The evolution of moral judgment and behavior. Foundational topics include competing characterizations of moral cognition, inclusive fitness, and literature on cross-cultural universals and differences. Debates include how much of adult morality is early-emerging in development vs. a late-emerging product that relies heavily on learning, the presence of morality in other species, and the relationship between the evolution of morality and the evolution of religious belief.  SO

* PSYC 409a, Science of Free Will Thomas Brown

The scientific facts and arguments behind the theory that free will is an illusion or invalid construct. Implications of this theory for religion, law, and morality. Supporting evidence drawn from the fields of psychology, neuroscience, genetics, physics, and complex adaptive systems.  SO

* PSYC 414b / WGSS 466b, Gender Images: A Psychological Perspective Marianne LaFrance

The nature and psychological impact of exposure to visual images that portray various dimensions of gender, such as sex differences and sexuality, in various media, including advertising, television, film, and Facebook. How to empirically decode gender images in contemporary media as well as assess their range of influences. The overall aim is to understand how visual representations of gender affect psychological identity and well-being.   SO

* PSYC 417a, Etiology and Treatment of Addictions Arielle Baskin-Sommers

Research from the fields of cognitive neuroscience, psychology, sociology, and public health on the etiology and treatment of addictions. Social, neurobiological, and genetic explanations for addiction; evaluation of addiction treatments; the social construction of substance policies.  SO

* PSYC 421a / CGSC 421a, Cognitive Science of Pleasure Paul Bloom

Exploration of the mysterious pleasures of the imagination, including daydreams, novels, movies, pretend play in children, and video games. Approach is eclectic, drawing on fields such as psychology, philosophy, neuroscience, evolutionary theory, and literary criticism.  SO

* PSYC 422b / CGSC 426b / EP&E 490b / PHIL 426b, The Cognitive Science of Morality Joshua Knobe

Introduction to the emerging field of moral cognition. Focus on questions about the philosophical significance of psychological findings. Topics include the role of emotion in moral judgment; the significance of character traits in virtue ethics and personality psychology; the reliability of intuitions and the psychological processes that underlie them.  HU

* PSYC 425b / CGSC 425b, Social Perception Brian Scholl

Connections between visual perception, among the earliest and most basic of human cognitive processes, and social cognition, among the most advanced forms of higher-level cognition. The perception of animacy, agency, and goal-directedness; biological motion; face perception (including the perception of facial attractiveness); gaze processing and social attention; "thin-slicing" and "perceptual stereotypes"; and social and cultural influences on perception.  SO

* PSYC 429b, Psychology of Prejudice, Stereotyping, and Discrimination Jennifer Richeson

Examination of the social psychology of stereotyping, prejudice, and discrimination. Specifically, the processes of mind and brain that give rise to both positive and negative relations between members of different societal groups. PSYC 110 PSYC 200 (or equivalent) PSYC 235 (or equivalent) PSYC 150 (recommended)

* PSYC 436b / HIST 413Jb / HSHM 420b, History of Addiction Henry Cowles

A survey of the understanding and treatment of addiction in the modern period. Psychology and psychiatry; alcoholism, abstinence, and prohibition; gambling and other behavioral addictions; recent work on habit formation; and addiction narratives in literature and film. Readings include primary texts from a range of scientific and medical fields as well as from court cases, political debates, and social and religious movements.   WR, HU

* PSYC 454b, Sensory Information Processing Lawrence Marks

A functional examination of the ways that sensory systems transduce stimulus energies and information. Topics include sensory anatomy and physiology, psychophysical analysis of the qualitative dimensions of sensory experience, selective attention, and interactions among sensory, perceptual, and cognitive mechanisms.  SC, SO

* PSYC 455b / HIST 178Jb / HSHM 457b / HUMS 457b, Other Minds Henry Cowles and Laurie Santos

A historical and scientific perspective on what this course will refer to as "other minds." Students have the opportunity to study key scientific papers and interact with international experts on such topics as the cognitive capacities that allow humans to think of animal species as deserving of compassion and respect; why certain human groups are considered "less than" human; and what makes the human mind special. Prerequisites: one course in psychology and one course in historical perspectives, or with permission of the instructor.  SO

* PSYC 477b / EDST 377, Psychopathology and the Family Kristi Lockhart

The influence of the family on development and maintenance of both normal and abnormal behavior. Special emphasis on the role of early childhood experiences. Psychological, biological, and sociocultural factors within the family that contribute to variations in behavior. Relations between family and disorders such as schizophrenia, depression, anorexia nervosa, and criminality. Family therapy approaches and techniques.  SO

* PSYC 493a or b, Directed Research Woo-kyoung Ahn

Empirical research projects or literature review. A student must be sponsored by a faculty member, who sets the requirements and supervises the student's progress. To register, the student must submit a written plan of study approved by the adviser to the director of undergraduate studies. The normal minimum requirement is a written report of the completed research or literature review, but individual faculty members may set alternative equivalent requirements. May be elected for one or two terms. May not be used for the Psychology senior requirement.

* PSYC 495a or b, Research Topics Woo-kyoung Ahn

Discussion and/or individual study of current topics or ongoing research projects. A student must be sponsored by a faculty member, who sets the requirements and supervises the coursework. Requirements can include attending lab meetings, performing research with a faculty member, or writing a final paper. To register, the student must submit a written plan of study approved by the faculty sponsor to the director of undergraduate studies. May be repeated for credit. May not be used for the Psychology senior requirement.  ½ Course cr

* PSYC 499a or b, Senior Essay Woo-kyoung Ahn

Independent senior research project (either empirical research or literature review), conducted under the guidance of a faculty adviser who sets the requirements and supervises the research. To register, students must submit a written plan of study, approved by the adviser, to the director of undergraduate studies. A paper of 5,000 words or more meets the writing needed for the senior requirement. To be considered for Distinction in the Major, the paper should be submitted at least one week before the last day of classes and will be graded by the advisor and a second reader assigned by the DUS.