Sociology

Director of undergraduate studies: Andrew Papachristos, 493 College St., 432-3345, andrew.papachristos@yale.edu; yale.edu/sociology

FACULTY OF THE DEPARTMENT OF SOCIOLOGY

Professors Julia Adams, Jeffrey Alexander, Elijah Anderson, †James Baron, Scott Boorman, Nicholas Christakis, †Paul Cleary, Deborah Davis, Ron Eyerman, Philip Gorski, †Peter Salovey, †Vicki Schultz, Philip Smith (Chair), †Olav Sorensen, Frederick Wherry

Associate Professors Rene Almeling, Emily Erikson, †Marissa King, †Issa Kohler-Hausmann, Vida Maralani, Andrew Papachristos, Jonathan Wyrtzen

Assistant Professors †Justin Farrell, Lloyd Grieger

Lecturer Matthew Mahler

†A joint appointment with primary affiliation in another department or school.

Sociology provides the theoretical and empirical foundation for understanding how societies function and how they change over time. Sociologists are interested in the causes and consequences of processes such as the social construction of groups and identity, the evolution of culture, intersubjective meanings, intergroup relations, and hierarchies and social norms. They conduct research on individual behavior and outcomes such as educational attainment, jobs and careers, religious commitment, and political involvement; interpersonal processes such as intimate relationships, sexuality, social interaction in groups, and social networks; the behaviors of organizations and institutions; the causes and consequences of group differences and social inequality; and social change at the societal and global level.

The Sociology major provides both a solid foundation for students interested in careers in the social sciences and a strong background for a variety of professions in which knowledge about social processes and how societies work is relevant. Many recent graduates have gone on to law school, medical school, or graduate programs in public health, business, education, urban planning, criminology, or sociology. Others work in finance, consulting, publishing, marketing, city planning, teaching, research, and advocacy.

The Sociology department offers four undergraduate programs leading to the B.A. degree: (1) the standard program focuses on sociological concepts, theories, and methods; (2) a combined program allows students to combine sociology with a concentration in another field; (3) a concentration in markets and society focuses on the cultural frameworks, social ties, and social institutions that give rise to markets and that shape economic behavior; (4) a concentration in health and society emphasizes social processes as they affect health and medicine. Students interested in the major are encouraged to contact the director of undergraduate studies early in their academic careers to discuss potential options.

Prerequisite Students interested in the Sociology major should complete either a freshman seminar or at least one introductory course (numbered SOCY 110–149) by the end of the sophomore year. This course may be applied toward the requirements of the major. The director of undergraduate studies can waive the introductory course requirement for students who demonstrate adequate preparation for advanced course work in sociology. All students interested in the Sociology major should meet with the director of undergraduate studies no later than the beginning of the junior year to elect a program of study.

Division of courses Courses in Sociology are divided by level, with introductory courses numbered from 110 to 149, courses in sociological theory from 150 to 159, courses in sociological methods from 160 to 169, intermediate courses from 150 to 299, advanced courses in the 300s, and individual study and research courses in the 400s. Freshman seminars are numbered below 100 and count as introductory or intermediate courses. In addition, qualified students may petition to enroll in graduate courses, with permission of the instructor and the director of graduate studies. A list of graduate courses and descriptions is available from the director of undergraduate studies.

Credit/D/Fail courses A maximum of two courses taken Credit/D/Fail may be counted toward the requirements of the major.

Program I. The standard major The requirements for the standard major are:

  1. Thirteen term courses in sociology (including the prerequisite and senior colloquium), of which normally no more than two may be drawn from outside the Sociology department. At least one must be an introductory Sociology course or a substitute approved by the director of undergraduate studies, but no more than two introductory courses may count toward the total.
  2. Two courses in sociological theory and two in sociological methods, normally completed by the end of the junior year. SOCY 151, Foundations of Modern Social Theory, and 152, Topics in Contemporary Social Theory, are the required courses for theory. SOCY 160, Methods of Inquiry, and one additional Sociology course numbered SOCY 161–169 are required for methods. Other methods courses from outside the department can be approved at the discretion of the director of undergraduate studies. Students planning to study abroad in their junior year are strongly encouraged to begin meeting the theory and methods requirements in their sophomore year. They should also discuss the options for their course of study with the director of undergraduate studies before finalizing their plans.
  3. One advanced seminar in Sociology (SOCY 300–399).
  4. For students in the intensive major, a two-term senior essay and colloquium, SOCY 493, 494. Students in the nonintensive major take one additional 300-level seminar in Sociology and write a one-term senior essay in SOCY 491.

Program II. Sociology with another subject The combined program allows students to unite the study of sociology with the study of another discipline or substantive area, and to design a program that satisfies their own interests and career plans. By the beginning of the junior year, participants in the combined program are expected to consult with the director of undergraduate studies in order to obtain approval for their course of study. The requirements for Program II are:

  1. Thirteen term courses (including the prerequisite and senior colloquium), of which at least nine and no more than ten are selected from Sociology, the remainder being chosen from another department or program. At least one must be an introductory Sociology course or a substitute approved by the director of undergraduate studies, but no more than two introductory courses in any department or program may count toward the total. The courses outside Sociology must constitute a coherent unit alone and form a logical whole when combined with the Sociology courses.
  2. Two courses in sociological theory and two in sociological methods, normally completed by the end of the junior year. SOCY 151, Foundations of Modern Social Theory, and 152, Topics in Contemporary Social Theory, are the required courses for theory. SOCY 160, Methods of Inquiry, and one additional Sociology course numbered SOCY 161–169 are required for methods. Other methods courses from outside the department can be approved at the discretion of the director of undergraduate studies. Students planning to study abroad in their junior year are strongly encouraged to begin meeting the theory and methods requirements in their sophomore year. They should also discuss the options for their course of study with the director of undergraduate studies before finalizing their plans.
  3. One advanced seminar in Sociology (SOCY 300–399).
  4. A one- or two-term senior essay in which the student integrates sociology and the other subject chosen. Students in the intensive major write a two-term senior essay and attend a yearlong biweekly colloquium (SOCY 493, 494). Students in the nonintensive major take one additional 300-level seminar in Sociology and write a one-term senior essay in SOCY 491.

Program III. Concentration in markets and society Students in the markets and society concentration gain a broad understanding of markets and their relationship to social networks, religion, the state, and culture. Students explore the field of economic sociology, develop insights into market logics and economic outcomes, and develop skills in network analysis. Application is required to the markets and society concentration, using a form downloaded from the Sociology department Web site. Requirements for the concentration are:

  1. Thirteen term courses in sociology (including the prerequisite and senior colloquium). At least one must be an introductory Sociology course or a substitute approved by the director of undergraduate studies, but no more than two introductory courses in any department or program may count toward the total. Up to four courses may be drawn from outside the Sociology department, with approval from the director of undergraduate studies.
  2. Two courses in sociological methods, one in network analysis (e.g., SOCY 167, Social Networks and Society) and another in statistics (e.g., SOCY 162, Methods in Quantitative Analysis).
  3. SOCY 321, Sociology of Markets. A different seminar may fulfill this requirement with approval from the director of undergraduate studies.
  4. One additional intermediate or advanced course in economic sociology. Suitable courses include SOCY 219, Economic Sociology; and SOCY 395, Wealth and Poverty in Modern China. An intermediate or advanced course in economic anthropology (e.g., ANTH 346, Anthropological Approaches to Capitalism) or a course in economic history or behavioral economics may fulfill this requirement with approval from the director of undergraduate studies.
  5. At least one intermediate or advanced course in microeconomics (e.g., ECON 121 or 125).
  6. A one- or two- term senior essay integrating sociology with business, markets, or economic behavior. Students in the intensive major write a two-term senior essay and attend the yearlong biweekly colloquium (SOCY 493, 494). Students in the nonintensive major take one additional 300-level seminar in Sociology and write a one-term senior essay in SOCY 491.

Program IV. Concentration in health and society Students in the health and society concentration gain a broad understanding of how supraindividual factors such as socioeconomic inequality, demographic processes, neighborhood environments, cultural norms, and social networks affect health and medical care. Students explore the fields of medical sociology, stratification, demography, and network science. The core courses in the concentration satisfy the social science requirements of premedical programs while also providing a solid foundation for students interested in public health, health policy, and global health. Application is required to the health and society concentration, using a form downloaded from the Sociology department Web site. Requirements for the concentration are:

  1. Thirteen term courses in Sociology (including the prerequisite and senior colloquium). Up to five course credits may be drawn from outside the Sociology department, with approval from the director of undergraduate studies.
  2. SOCY 126, Health of the Public (or other similar course, with approval of DUS), the gateway course for the concentration.
  3. SOCY 151, Foundations of Modern Social Theory, is highly recommended.
  4. A course in statistics: SOCY 162, Methods in Quantitative Sociology, or STAT 103, Introduction to Statistics: Social Sciences, or GLBL 121, Applied Quantitative Analysis, or a higher-level statistics course approved by the director of undergraduate studies.
  5. SOCY 160, Methods of Inquiry, or a comparable course approved by the director of undergraduate studies.
  6. In order to build a broad base of interdisciplinary knowledge on health, students may take up to five course credits from outside the Sociology department. It is recommended that students select at least one course credit from the following: BIOL 101, Biochemistry and Biophysics; BIOL 102, Principles of Cell Biology and Membrane Physiology; BIOL 103, Genes and Development; BIOL 104, Principles of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology; MATH 112, Calculus of Functions of One Variable I (or higher-level Mathematics course); ECON 170, Health Economics and Public Policy.
  7. Two upper-level Sociology seminars selected from the following: SOCY 341, Poverty and Social Welfare Policy in the United States; SOCY 314, Inequality in America; SOCY 361, Demography, Gender, and Health; SOCY 390, Politics of Reproduction; other courses approved by the director of undergraduate studies.
  8. A one- or two-term senior essay integrating sociology with health and medicine. Students in the intensive major write a two-term senior essay and attend the yearlong biweekly colloquium (SOCY 493, 494). Students in the nonintensive major take one additional 300-level seminar in Sociology and write a one-term senior essay in SOCY 491.

Senior requirement for the nonintensive major Students electing the nonintensive major take one additional seminar in Sociology (SOCY 300–399) and write a one-credit senior essay during the senior year (SOCY 491). The senior essay for nonintensive majors is intended to be an in-depth scholarly review and critical analysis based on secondary sources. Students select an important topic in any sociological field and write a literature review that evaluates what is known about the topic. All nonintensive majors are required to enroll in SOCY 491 to receive credit for the senior essay. To register for this course, students must submit a written plan of study approved by a faculty adviser to the director of undergraduate studies no later than the end of registration period in the term in which the senior essay is to be written. Nonintensive majors are not eligible to graduate with Distinction in the Major.

Senior requirement for the intensive major The intensive major gives students an opportunity to undertake a yearlong program of original research resulting in a contribution to sociological knowledge. The yearlong project requires substantial independent research and knowledge of a sociological subfield. Students use research methods such as data gathering through participant observation, in-depth interviewing, administration of small-scale surveys, or secondary analysis of existing data. They may present findings in a variety of forms, from ethnographic narratives to analytical statistics. Students select primary and secondary advisers from the faculty. Students in the intensive major enroll in SOCY 493, 494, Senior Essay and Colloquium for Intensive Majors, during their senior year. The colloquium provides a forum for discussing the research process and for presenting students' research at various stages. Intensive majors are eligible to graduate with Distinction in the Major if they meet the grade standards for Distinction—see under Honors in the Undergraduate Curriculum section—and submit a senior essay written in SOCY 493, 494.

Admission to the intensive major Candidates for the intensive major should apply to the director of undergraduate studies by the last day of classes in the spring term of their junior year. The intensive major is especially recommended for students considering graduate school or social research. In special circumstances, applications may be accepted through the end of registration period in the first term of the senior year. Applications should include a one-page statement of interest that includes a list of relevant courses taken and identifies a prospective senior essay adviser. Admission is based on performance and promise. The director of undergraduate studies and the senior essay adviser serve as advisers to seniors in the intensive major.

REQUIREMENTS OF THE MAJOR

Prerequisite 1 freshman sem or intro course (SOCY 110–149) or equivalent

Number of courses 13 term courses (incl prereq and senior essay)

Specific courses requiredPrograms I and II—SOCY 151, 152, 160, 1 addtl course from SOCY 161–169; Program III— SOCY 321; Program IV—SOCY 126

Distribution of coursesAll programs—no more than 2 intro courses; Program I—1 sem from SOCY 300–399; Program II—9 or 10 courses in Sociology; 3 or 4 courses from another dept; 1 sem from SOCY 300–399; Program III—2 courses in methods, as specified; 1 intermed or adv course in economic sociology; 1 intermed or adv course in microecon; Program IV—1 course in stat, as specified; 2 sems from SOCY 300–399, as specified

Substitution permittedProgram I—up to 2 courses from other depts; Program III—up to 4 courses from other depts, with DUS approval; Program IV—up to 5 courses from other depts, with DUS approval

Senior requirement Nonintensive major—1 addtl 300-level Sociology sem and senior essay (SOCY 491); Intensive major—two-term senior essay (SOCY 493, 494)

Introductory Courses

* SOCY 018b, The Sociological Imagination Julia Adams

Introduction to the linked study of sociology and modernity. Topics include the dramatic rise of capitalism; colonialism and empire; the advent of democracy and bureaucracy; the world-historical invention of the individual; and the contested role of religion in modernity. Readings from classical and contemporary authors. Enrollment limited to freshmen. Preregistration required; see under Freshman Seminar Program.  SO

* SOCY 086a, China in the Age of Xi Jinping Deborah Davis

An overview of the major social institutions in contemporary China, with a focus on the changing relationship between individual and society. Use of print and visual sources to explore the social consequences of China's recent retreat from socialism and its rapid integration into the global economy. May count toward the Sociology major as an intermediate course. Enrollment limited to freshmen. Preregistration required; see under Freshman Seminar Program.  SO

SOCY 133a, Computers, Networks, and Society Scott Boorman

Comparison of major algorithm-centered approaches to the analysis of complex social network and organizational data. Fundamental principles for developing a disciplined and coherent perspective on the effects of modern information technology on societies worldwide. Software warfare and algorithm sabotage; blockmodeling and privacy; legal, ethical, and policy issues. No prior experience with computers required.  SORP

SOCY 139b / ANTH 132b, Sex, Love, and Reproduction Eduardo Fernandez-Duque

Introduction to the scientific study of sex in humans. Basic principles of evolutionary biology; genetic, physiological, ecological, social, and behavioral aspects of sex in humans; topics relevant to human sexuality today. Examples drawn primarily from traditional and modern human societies, with some attention to data from studies of nonhuman primates.  SO

SOCY 142b, Sociology of Sport Michael DeLand

Introduction to sociological perspectives in the study of sport, including issues of race, gender, modernity, embodiment, globalization, and athletic careers. Examination of sport as a social institution that mediates between individuals' sense of self, identity, personhood, and society and its values, ideologies, and modes of production.    SO

SOCY 167a, Social Networks and Society Andrew Papachristos

Introduction to the theory and practice of social network analysis. The role of social networks in contemporary society; basic properties of network measures, matrices, and statistics. Theoretical concepts such as centrality and power, cohesion and community, structural holes, duality of persons and groups, small worlds, and diffusion and contagion. Use of social structural, dynamic, and statistical approaches, as well as network analysis software. No background in statistics required.  SO

Courses in Sociological Theory

Open to all students without prerequisite.

* SOCY 151a / PLSC 290a, Foundations of Modern Social Theory Philip Gorski

Major works of social thought from the beginning of the modern era through the 1920s. Attention to social and intellectual contexts, conceptual frameworks and methods, and contributions to contemporary social analysis. Writers include Adam Smith, Alexis de Tocqueville, Karl Marx, Emile Durkheim, and Max Weber.  SO

* SOCY 152b, Topics in Contemporary Social Theory Ron Eyerman

In-depth introduction to recent developments in social theory, with particular emphasis on the last twenty years. Focus on three distinct areas of study: the building blocks and contrasting understandings of human persons and social action; the competing theories of the social structure of markets, institutions, cultures, social fields, and actor-networks; and the theoretical controversies concerning nations, states and empires, ethnic and racial identity, and the relation between facts and values in social research. Authors include Judith Butler, Michel Foucault, Jurgen Habermas, Pierre Bourdieu and Bruno Latour. None. Though "Foundations of Modern Social Theory" or equivalent is strongly recommended.  SO

Courses in Sociological Methods

* SOCY 160a, Methods of Inquiry Matthew Mahler

The theory and practice of social inquiry. How social scientists—and aspiring social scientists—actually do their work, including designing research, sampling and measuring, and interpreting results. Examination of thesis proposal writing; ethical quandaries involved in social research. No background in social research assumed.  SO

* SOCY 162a, Methods in Quantitative Sociology Lloyd Grieger

Introduction to methods in quantitative sociological research. Topics include: data description; graphical approaches; elementary probability theory; bivariate and multivariate linear regression; regression diagnostics. Students use Stata for hands-on data analysis.  QR, SO

SOCY 167a, Social Networks and Society Andrew Papachristos

Introduction to the theory and practice of social network analysis. The role of social networks in contemporary society; basic properties of network measures, matrices, and statistics. Theoretical concepts such as centrality and power, cohesion and community, structural holes, duality of persons and groups, small worlds, and diffusion and contagion. Use of social structural, dynamic, and statistical approaches, as well as network analysis software. No background in statistics required.  SO

* SOCY 169b, Visual Sociology Philip Smith

Introduction to themes and methods in visual sociology. The role and use of visual information in social life, including images, objects, settings, and human interactions. Ethnographic photography, the study of media images, maps and diagrams, observation and coding of public settings, unobtrusive measures, and the use of internet resources.  SO

Intermediate Courses

The prerequisite for intermediate courses is one introductory Sociology course or permission of the instructor.

SOCY 155b / JDST 323b / MMES 160b / NELC 155b, State and Society in Israel Dina Roginsky

The interplay between the state and society in Israel. Current Israeli discourse on controversial issues such as civil rights in a Jewish-democratic state, Jewish-Arab relations, and right and left politics. Issues of orthodoxy, military service, globalization, and multiculturalism in Israel. Sociopolitical changes that have taken place in Israel since the establishment of the state in 1948 and that have led to the reshaping of Israeli Zionist ideology. Hebrew knowledge is not required.  HU

SOCY 170b / AFAM 186b / LAST 214b / PLSC 378b, Contesting Injustice Elisabeth Wood

Exploration of why, when, and how people organize collectively to challenge political, social, and economic injustice. Cross-national comparison of the extent, causes, and consequences of inequality. Analysis of mobilizations for social justice in both U.S. and international settings. Intended primarily for freshmen and sophomores.  SO

SOCY 172b / PLSC 415b, Religion and Politics Sigrun Kahl

Challenges to the view of religion as an archaic force destined to dwindle away in a secularized society. A historical and comparative investigation of the relationship between religion and politics in Europe and the United States, with comparisons to the Muslim world.  SO

SOCY 190a / AFAM 196a / AMST 196a / ER&M 226a / EVST 196a, Race, Class, and Gender in American Cities Laura Barraclough

Examination of how racial, gender, and class inequalities have been built, sustained, and challenged in American cities. Focus on the twentieth and twenty-first centuries. Topics include industrialization and deindustrialization, segregation, gendered public/private split, gentrification, transit equity, environmental justice, food access, and the relationships between public space, democracy, and community wellbeing. Includes field projects in New Haven.  SO

* SOCY 221a / MGRK 236a / PLSC 138a, Eurozone Crisis Paris Aslanidis

Examination of how Europe continues to struggle with repercussions of the Great Recession and the impact of the Eurozone crisis in countries such as Portugal, Ireland, Spain, and, especially, Greece. Topics include the euro as a viable common currency; why and how the Eurozone crisis erupted and spread; and whether this catastrophe could have been averted.  SO

* SOCY 232b / AFST 348b / MMES 291b, Islamic Social Movements Jonathan Wyrtzen

Social movement theory used to analyze the emergence and evolution of Islamic movements from the early twentieth century to the present. Organization, mobilization, political process, and framing of political, nonpolitical, militant, and nonmilitant movements; transnational dimensions of Islamic activism. Case studies include the Muslim Brotherhood, Hamas, Hizbollah, Al-Qaeda, Gulen, Al-Adl wa-Ihsann, Islamic State, and others.  SO

SOCY 256b, Advertising, Consumption, and Society Frederick Wherry and Andrew Cohen

The study of advertisements and their targets, what happens behind the scenes to produce them, how they are deployed, and what they tell us about the societies creating and consuming them. Focus on the production of advertisements and marketing strategies as social processes; how to read advertisements and the roles that gender, sexuality, race, and ethnicity play in producing and consuming advertising; and the impact advertising has on society.  SO

Advanced Courses

Courses in this category are open to students who have completed one intermediate course and any other specified requirement, or by permission of the instructor. Preference is given to Sociology majors in their junior and senior years.

* SOCY 300a, Sociology in the Age of Big Data Joscha Legewie

Exploration of how big data and data science is transforming social science research in many areas of government, business, education, and science. Topics include the new science of networks; web-based social research; administrative data; traces of digital lives; challenges facing social sciences; and consideration of ethical and privacy concerns.  SO

* SOCY 307b / ER&M 376b / MGRK 304b / PLSC 376b, Extreme and Radical Right Movements Paris Aslanidis

Extreme and radical right movements and political parties are a recurrent phenomenon found in most parts of the world. Discussion of their foundational values and the causes of their continuous, even increasing, support among citizens and voters.    SO

* SOCY 313a, Sociology of the Arts and Popular Culture Ron Eyerman

An advanced introduction to sociological perspectives on the arts and popular culture. Emphasis on the conceptualization of culture within social theory, with the aim of interpreting cultural expressions and artifacts—artworks, music, television, film, and literature.  SO

* SOCY 317a / ENGL 228a, Sociological Imagination in African Literatures Stephanie Newell

Introduction to a variety of literary, oral, and visual narratives by artists from countries as diverse as Egypt, Ghana, Nigeria, Sudan, South Africa, and Zimbabwe. Integration of literary and sociological approaches to African texts.  HU

* SOCY 319a / AFAM 390a / ER&M 419a, Ethnography of the African American Community Elijah Anderson

An ethnographic study of the African American community. Analysis of ethnographic and historical literature, with attention to substantive, conceptual, and methodological issues. Topics include the significance of slavery, the racial ghetto, structural poverty, the middle class, the color line, racial etiquette, and social identity.  SO

* SOCY 322a / PLSC 351a, European Fascism Bernt Hagtvet

Fascism in Europe, in its variety of national manifestations, between 1918 and 1945. Topics include the range of theories about the social, intellectual, and political origins of Fascism; regime forms implemented by Fascists; crimes perpetrated by Fascist movements in Europe; and the long-term effects of Fascism on political debates in contemporary Europe.  SO

* SOCY 326a, Analysis of Quantitative Data Donald Treiman

Detailed exploration of theoretically informed quantitative social research. Techniques include tabular analysis, regression analysis, regression diagnostics and robust regression, ways to cope with missing data, logistic regression, factor analysis and other techniques of scale construction, and coping with measurement error. Use of these procedures to make sociological sense of quantitative data and to draw substantive conclusions about how the social world works.   Prerequisite: Introductory statistics.

* SOCY 328b / HIST 333Jb / PLSC 373b, Politics and Change in Contemporary China Ralph Thaxton

Advanced study of the politics and changes in contemporary China. Emphasis on the post 1949 period, paying special attention to political memory, and the role of memory in shaping resistance, protest, and contention.  SO

* SOCY 330a / AFST 303a / EP&E 303a, Civil Sphere and Democracy Jeffrey Alexander

In dialogue with normative and empirical approaches to civil society, this course examines civil sphere theory. The sacred and profane binaries that animate the civil sphere are studied, as are such civil sphere organizations as polls, mass media, electoral system, law, and office. Topics include: United States presidential elections, immigration and its controversies, the civil rights movement, the crisis of contemporary journalism, recent controversies over church pedophilia, the financial system, telephone hacking, and the challenge of de-provincializing civil sphere theory. one intermediate sociology course, or by permission of the instructor.  HU, SO

* SOCY 339b / AFST 373b / GLBL 362b / MMES 282b, Imperialism, Insurgency, and State Building in the Middle East and North Africa Jonathan Wyrtzen

The historical evolution of political order from Morocco to Central Asia in the past two centuries. Focus on relationships between imperialism, insurgency, and state building. Ottoman, European, and nationalist strategies for state building; modes of local resistance; recent transnational developments; American counterinsurgency and nation-building initiatives in the region.  SO

* SOCY 352a / HUMS 247a, Material Culture and Iconic Consciousness Jeffrey Alexander

How and why contemporary societies continue to symbolize sacred and profane meanings, investing these meanings with materiality and shaping them aesthetically. Exploration of "iconic consciousness" in theoretical terms (philosophy, sociology, semiotics) and further exploration of compelling empirical studies about food and bodies, nature, fashion, celebrities, popular culture, art, architecture, branding, and politics.  HU, SO

* SOCY 362a / AFAM 276a / PLSC 222a, Race and the Politics of Punishment Vesla Weaver

Historical and contemporary issues surrounding race and punishment in the American criminal justice system, with a focus on research involving institutional development, policy history, and racial orders. The influence of racial perceptions on policy preferences; ways in which the criminal justice system defines and creates race; debates about black inclusion and equality and their relation to debates about crime and punishment.   SO

* SOCY 365b / PLSC 241b, The Making of Political News Matthew Mahler

The processes through which political news gets made. How the form and content of political news are shaped in and through the ongoing relationships between political operatives and journalists; ways in which these actors attempt to structure and restructure such relationships to their benefit.  SO

* SOCY 369b / EP&E 258b / PLSC 446b, Welfare States across Nations Sigrun Kahl

How different societies counterbalance capitalism and deal with social risks. Welfare state regimes and their approaches to inequality, unemployment, poverty, illness, disability, child rearing, and old age. Why the United States has an exceptionally small welfare state.  SO

* SOCY 389a or b / GLBL 215a or b / LAST 386a or b / MGRK 237a or b / PLSC 375a or b, Populism from Chavez to Trump Paris Aslanidis

Investigation of the nature of the populist phenomenon and its impact on politics, society, and the economy in various regions of the world. Conceptual and methodological analyses are supported by comparative assessments of various empirical instances, from populist politicians such as Hugo Chavez and Donald Trump, to populist social movements such as the Tea Party and Occupy Wall Street.  SO

* SOCY 394b / AFST 394b, Middle Class Milieus in the Global South Florian Stoll

Examination of the lifestyles and everyday cultures of middle-class milieus in Kenya, Brazil, and other countries in Africa, South America, and Asia. Culture-based study of phenomena in the emerging middle strata of the Global South, including the use of technology, family relations, and ethnicity/race. Students learn to use milieu analysis for the study of sociocultural particularities in very different contexts.  SO

* SOCY 395a / EAST 408a / EP&E 269a, Wealth and Poverty in Modern China Deborah Davis

The underlying causes and consequences of the changing distribution of income, material assets, and political power in contemporary China. Substantive focus on inequality and stratification. Instruction in the use of online Chinese resources relevant to research. Optional weekly Chinese language discussions. Prerequisite: a previous course on China since 1949.  SO

Individual Study and Research Courses

* SOCY 471a and SOCY 472b, Individual Study Andrew Papachristos

Individual study for qualified juniors and seniors under faculty supervision. To register for this course, each student must submit to the director of undergraduate studies a written plan of study that has been approved by a faculty adviser.

* SOCY 491a or b, Senior Essay and Colloquium for Nonintensive Majors Philip Smith

Independent library-based research under faculty supervision. To register for this course, students must submit a written plan of study approved by a faculty adviser to the director of undergraduate studies no later than the end of registration period in the term in which the senior essay is to be written. The course meets biweekly, beginning in the first week of the term.

* SOCY 493a and SOCY 494b, Senior Essay and Colloquium for Intensive Majors Andrew Papachristos

Independent research under faculty direction, involving empirical research and resulting in a substantial paper. Workshop meets biweekly to discuss various stages of the research process and to share experiences in gathering and analyzing data. The first meeting is in the second week of the term.