Health Policy and Management
HPM 500a or b, Independent Study in Health Policy and Management Jason Hockenberry
Student-initiated directed readings or supervised research under the direction of a Health Policy and Management faculty member. Enrollment requires the development of a term plan approved by a primary faculty mentor and the HPM independent study director. A term plan for directed readings shall include (a) topic and objectives, (b) applicable YSPH or departmental competencies, (c) 13 weeks of readings, (d) a schedule for meetings between the student and supervising faculty mentor, and (e) a description of a culminating written assignment to be completed by the conclusion of the term. A term plan for a research project shall include (a) a project description, (b) weekly benchmarks and activities for 13 weeks, and (c) a description of a final project or other written product to be produced by the conclusion of the term. The student and faculty mentor are expected to meet regularly throughout the term. This course is designed for M.P.H. students but is also open to other students at Yale with approval of a supervising HPM faculty mentor and the HPM independent study director. M.P.H. students may enroll in this course no more than twice for credit; each independent study must meet all requirements described above.
HPM 514a, Health Politics, Governance, and Policy Mark Schlesinger
This course is designed to familiarize students with the various processes by which governmental health policy is made in the United States, and with current policy debates. One focus of the course is to understand the politics underlying the successes and failures of health policy making during the course of the twentieth century. This includes a discussion of the relevant governmental institutions, political actors, the major national programs that have been established, and how political actors use resources and set their strategies.
[ HPM 531, Systematic Reviews, Meta-Analyses, and Meta-Research ]
This course introduces the theory and tools necessary to synthesize evidence and evaluate the quality, validity, and reproducibility of research. Every year, several million new research papers are published, and in biomedicine alone, the number has been increasing exponentially. The rapid accumulation of scientific studies provides an opportunity to conduct meta-research. Meta-research, which cuts across all disciplines and relies on a wide range of methodological approaches, is the study of research itself (i.e., research methods, results, reporting, reproducibility, and incentives). The overall goals of meta-research are to accumulate and synthesize evidence, assess key research characteristics, and determine how to improve and inform research practices, evidentiary standards, and policies. While individual systematic reviews and meta-analyses fall under the umbrella of meta-research, this course also introduces a broad range of “review” study designs and data sources (e.g., regulatory documents, registries, and data-sharing platforms) that can be utilized to answer questions across different biomedical/public health fields (e.g., environmental epidemiology, health policy and regulatory science, etc.). Key topics covered in this course include: (1) the philosophy of science and meta-research, (2) statistical inferences and the reproducibility crisis, (3) systematic review, scoping review, mapping review, and umbrella review methodology, (4) database characteristics and searches, (5) meta-analyses and evidence synthesis, (6) scientific biases and risk bias assessments, and (7) advanced review methodology. Throughout the course, students design their own meta-research project that can be turned into a thesis and/or eventual publication in a peer-reviewed journal. Prerequisite: one graduate-level biostatistics (e.g., EPH 505) or epidemiology (e.g., EPH 508, CDE 534) course. Other equivalent courses require the permission of the instructor. 1 Course cr
HPM 541Ea, Leading Healthcare Transformation Laurie Graham
Leading transformational change within institutions and organizations is one of the most challenging and critically important endeavors of our time. This course provides real-life examples, experience-based insights, and practical guidance on how to maneuver through the minefields and effect positive disruptive change within health care organizations. Open only to students enrolled in the Executive Online M.P.H. Program. Not open to auditors.
HPM 542b, Health of Women and Children Victoria Perez
The focus of this course is women’s and children’s health and health care in the United States. Emerging health issues and related health policy are presented and discussed in terms of epidemiology, including racial/ethnic disparities and effects of poverty; utilization and financing of children’s health care; and existing programs and public policies that facilitate access to care. Data sources and data needs are identified. Topics may include history of MCH programs and policy, Medicaid and SCHIP, low birth weight and infant mortality, maternal mortality, reproductive health, breast and cervical cancer screening, pediatric oral health, pediatric asthma, childhood obesity, adolescent health care and teen pregnancy, children with special health care needs, childhood injuries and injury prevention. Students are expected to critically evaluate the public health implications of selected conditions and the effect of public policy on availability, accessibility, acceptability of services, and accountability in health care for women and children. Not open to auditors.
[ HPM 545, Health Disparities ]
This seminar explores our nation’s striking inequities in morbidity, mortality, and injury (including by race, ethnicity, socioeconomic and immigration status, gender and gender identity, and geography), placing particular focus on the structural and social determinants of these inequities. Through readings drawn from multiple disciplines, it examines such topics as the impacts on health of poverty and inequality in income, wealth, and education; overt and implicit discrimination; residential segregation and concentrated poverty and their associated differential exposures to environmental hazards and health-promoting resources; differential access to, and quality of, health care; and the role of law as a determinant of, and tool to address, health inequities. A variety of community-based interventions to address health inequities are reviewed and critiqued, as are some of the ways law and policy are now being used as a tool to promote health justice. 1 Course cr
HPM 548b, Pharmaceutical Industry and Public Policy Victoria Perez
This course provides a comprehensive exploration of the multifaceted pharmaceutical industry and the vital policy issues it faces. Although the focus is on firms within the traditional chemical pharmaceutical industry, biotechnology, and medical devices, the course embraces a global perspective, emphasizing the U.S. as the largest and most profitable market. Pharmaceutical Industry and Public Policy is a crucial interdisciplinary course designed not just for health policy students but also for those from various other departments including environmental health and safety and epidemiology of microbial diseases. Whether you're a Ph.D. student delving into the policy implications of your research, or an undergraduate exploring career options, this course offers valuable insights into an industry that impacts all of our lives. The course equips students with the knowledge and understanding to navigate the intersections between health, environmental policy, and the microbial world, all within the context of the global pharmaceutical industry. This makes it an invaluable choice for those considering a career in any sector of the industry or academia or for those simply wishing to understand the complexities and implications of pharmaceutical policy in our increasingly global society. Key issues we will investigate include: substantial investments in research and development and the impact of rapid technological change; the transformative role of biotechnology and genomics in the industry; the complexities of a global marketplace where customers range from governments and private health insurers, to physicians, pharmacists, and individual patients; the extensive government regulation that touches every dimension of the business, from the safety and efficacy of drugs to pricing, manufacturing, and marketing; the continually evolving landscape of mergers, joint ventures, and alliances; and the challenges faced by global products and multinational firms, with a growing tension between differing needs and payment abilities across market segments.
HPM 555b, Health Policy or Health Care Management Practicum Staff
This course is one of the options available to HPM students to fulfill the M.P.H. applied practice experience requirement. The practicum is a project-based learning experience in which students work 8–10 hours each week in their placement. The Health Care Management Practicum (section 1) allows students to focus on current issues confronting a hospital department while working under the guidance of a departmental administrator. Students are required to attend the first week of class to enroll. The Health Policy Practicum (section 2) allows students to work on current state and/or local health policy issues while placed with state and/or local legislative or executive agency policy makers, or with senior staff at a nonprofit health policy or advocacy group. Prerequisite: permission of the instructor.
HPM 556a, Advanced Health Policy Practicum Shelley Geballe
This course is designed for students who wish to deepen their practice-based learning and develop additional research, communication, and advocacy skills through continuing work in a particular practicum placement and/or on a particular health policy topic. Students are placed with state and/or local legislative or executive agency policy makers, or with senior staff at nonprofit health policy or advocacy groups. Prerequisites: completion of HPM 555 and permission of the instructor.
[ HPM 558, Quality and Safety in Health Care Organizations ]
This course introduces students to the science and implementation of quality improvement, error reduction, and patient safety initiatives in health care organizations. We discuss how medical errors occur and are ascertained, the current tools used to evaluate quality and safety initiatives, ethical and institutional challenges, and strategies to improve quality and safety from multiple perspectives. The course also gives an overview of policy-level quality improvement initiatives and their impact on quality improvement in health care organizations. Case-based studies are included to encourage discussion of complex topics in real-world settings. In particular, students are asked to consider the challenges created by the different perspectives of patients, health care providers, public health professionals, and risk-management and insurance structures on quality and safety in health care organizations. The class is structured as a mix of didactic lectures and seminar discussions. 1 Course cr
HPM 559b, Big Data, Privacy, and Public Health Ethics Jennifer Miller
This course provides an introduction to ethical theory and decision-making applied to real-world cases at the intersection of big data and public health. The first part of the course focuses on patient medical information held by hospitals and health systems—exploring the ethics concerns and public health goals of hospitals sharing these data with technology companies like Google and Amazon, drug companies, and others. The role of informed consent in data sharing, whether patients have a duty to share medical information to benefit others, the ethics of paying people for their data, and whether data should be considered a public good are discussed. The second part centers on pharmaceutical industry data—discussing concerns around demographic inclusion and representation in clinical trial data; the ethics of providing patients access to experimental medicines (with limited efficacy data) outside of trials, particularly during pandemics; whether drug companies have a duty to advance seemingly unprofitable (or less profitable) but medically promising drugs, by sharing data; and companies’ post-trial responsibilities for access to medicines from a population health perspective. We wrap up the course exploring the role of venture philanthropy by patient groups in generating clinical trial data and advancing drug development. This includes a discussion on conflicts of interest. The course is intended primarily for M.P.H. students but is open to all Yale students, including undergraduates.
HPM 560b, Health Economics and U.S. Health Policy Zack Cooper
This course introduces students to the organization and operation of the American health care system. The course examines systems of health care delivery and finance and recent trends in their organization, including the growth of managed care. The course seeks to provide students with an understanding of the existing structure of the system and with conceptual frameworks. Not open to auditors.
[ HPM 564, Vaccination Policy and Politics ]
This course explores critical topics in vaccination policy in the United States and internationally. It does so by examining the interconnected political, regulatory, social, cultural, ethical, economic, legal, and historical issues that contribute to ongoing debates about the design and implementation of vaccination programs and policies. Students acquire an understanding of the scope and design of contemporary vaccination programs and policies in the United States and worldwide; the policy and political landscapes in which vaccination programs are developed, funded, and implemented; the positions, evidence, and arguments of both proponents and critics of contemporary vaccine policy; and the application of principles and concepts from health policy and policy analysis to the study of vaccination policy. Not open to auditors. 1 Course cr
HPM 570a, Cost-Effectiveness Analysis and Decision-Making A. Paltiel
This course introduces students to the methods of decision analysis and cost-effectiveness analysis in health-related technology assessment, resource allocation, and clinical decision-making. The course aims to develop technical competence in the methods used; practical skills in applying these tools to case-based studies of medical decisions and public health choices; and an appreciation of the uses and limitations of these methods at the levels of national policy, health care organizations, and individual patient care.
HPM 571a, Designing Health Systems of Tomorrow: Sharp Strategy and Fierce Execution Zerrin Cetin
Taught from a practitioner perspective, the course draws on real case studies of hospitals across the country to teach strategic planning and critical thinking skills. We utilize case discussions, teamwork, interactive lectures, and other methods of applied learning to illustrate how to build and execute business strategy for the future. Hospital examples ground us in the arc of developing a well thought-out and executionable strategic plan. We simulate a boardroom management discussion during our classes to practice synthesis and concise, impactful communication.
HPM 573b, Advanced Topics in Modeling Health Care Decisions Reza Yaesoubi
This course develops students’ technical competencies in computer simulation modeling and medical decision-making using Python. The course aims to enhance skills in developing and analyzing decision models to guide health care resource allocation, technology assessment, and clinical decision-making. Particular emphasis is placed on using object-oriented programming features of Python to develop efficient, scalable, and transparent simulation models. Students also acquire skills in conducting, presenting, and critically evaluating modeling studies. The course consists of lectures, in-class labs, practical exercises, and a final project through which students gain experience in developing health care decision models. No previous programming experience is required. Not open to auditors.
HPM 575b, Evaluation of Global Health Policies and Programs Drew Cameron
This course provides students with exposure to the methods used to evaluate global health policies and programs. The first half of the course focuses on impact evaluation, a set of tools at the cross-section of public policy, applied economics, and project management. The purpose is to harness current econometric tools to evaluate the causal impact of policies and programs in low- and middle-income countries. The second half of the course explores the principles, fundamental concepts, and application and design of cost analyses as they are applied to health economic evaluations to support the design, implementation, and scaling up of global health interventions. Over the course of the semester, students gain familiarity with the objectives and uses of cost data in global health and learn the appropriate methods and approaches to collect and analyze these data. This course includes a weekly combination of lectures, guest presentations, and class discussions exploring these concepts. In addition to weekly readings, students engage in a series of short lab-based homework assignments designed to provide familiarity with various econometric tools and work in small teams to design an impact evaluation and economic evaluation proposal on a global health program of their choosing. Students should have completed an introductory class in statistical methods that covered testing the difference between two means and linear regression, and preferably have experience using statistical software such as R or Stata.
Th 10am-11:50am, F 3pm-3:50pm
HPM 576b, Comparative Health Care Systems Chima Ndumele
This course examines the basic structure of health care systems across countries, with a focus on how system design can impact the provision of care. Health care systems evolve within distinct cultures; consequently, these systems vary substantially in the ways they finance, organize, and deliver care. In spite of these differences, the aims of health care systems worldwide are often quite similar: chiefly, to facilitate access to high-quality care that improves health at a reasonable cost. Over the course of the term we identify themes in how countries organize their health care systems, examine the strengths and weaknesses of various approaches to the payment and delivery of health care, and explore specific examples of ongoing efforts to reform health systems. Recurring concepts include the role of public and private systems in financing and delivering health care, the impact of the local environment on the structure of health care systems, and the effect of health system design on patient and provider behavior.
HPM 580a / EMD 580a, Reforming Health Systems: Using Data to Improve Health in Low- and Middle-Income Countries Robert Hecht
Health systems in low- and middle-income countries are in constant flux in the face of myriad pressures and demands, including those emanating from the current COVID-19 pandemic. Under such conditions, how can senior country officials and their international partners make the best decisions to reform health systems to achieve universal coverage and improve the allocation and use of resources to maximize health gains, including on scale-up of programs to fight infectious diseases and address other health problems? The course provides students with a thorough understanding of health systems, health reforms, and scaling up—their components, performance, and impacts—by teaching the key tools and data sources needed to assess options and make coherent and effective policy and financing choices. Using these frameworks, students analyze case examples of major country reforms and of scaling up of national disease programs (e.g., AIDS treatment, immunization, safe motherhood, mental health services, cardiovascular illness prevention, etc.) and prepare a paper applying what they have learned to real-world health systems challenges. This course is open to all Yale students with interest in the topic. A knowledge of global health, health policy, and health economics and financing is desirable but not required.
HPM 583b, Methods in Health Services Research Jacob Wallace
This course introduces students to quantitative social science methods—with an emphasis on causal inference—for health services research. The statistical concepts and methods are illustrated using data and examples primarily from the fields of health services research and health economics. The course begins with a refresher on linear regression (with a focus on intuition), progresses to causality and experimental research design, and then finishes with a tour of quasi-experimental techniques common in health services research: matching, difference-in-differences, regression discontinuity, instrumental variables, and synthetic control methods. Students learn to apply these techniques to data in the programming language of their choice (e.g., Stata/R) as well as gain general experience analyzing and visualizing data. Prerequisite: EPH 505.
HPM 586a, Microeconomics for Health Policy and Health Management Anna Chorniy
This course introduces students to microeconomics, with an emphasis on topics of particular relevance to the health care sector. Attention is paid to issues of equity and distribution, uncertainty and attitudes toward risk, and alternatives to price competition. This course is designed for students with minimal previous exposure to economics.
HPM 587a, Advanced Health Economics Jason Hockenberry
This course applies the principles learned in HPM 586 to the health of individuals, to health care institutions and markets, as well as to health care policy. The economic aspects of health behaviors, hospital markets, cost-benefit analysis, regulation, and the market for physician services are covered. Prerequisite: microeconomics or permission of the instructor.
HPM 588a, Public Health Law Shelley Geballe
This course provides an introduction to the multiple ways the law acts as a structural and social determinant of health and health inequity, as well as ways the law can be used as a tool to promote health in individuals and health justice among populations. It is designed specifically for students with no legal training. The course first provides background on the powers and duties of federal, state, and local governments to equitably promote and protect community health, as well as structural constraints on those powers, such as protection of individuals’ constitutional rights. Then, using case examples, it focuses on law as a tool to promote population health, including through direct and indirect regulation to alter the information and built environments, through measures to control communicable disease and reduce chronic disease and injury, and through the use of governments’ “power of the purse” to fund public health programs and services and influence individual and corporate behavior. Throughout the term, the course examines the role of courts in interpreting law and resolving disputes among branches and levels of government as well as among individuals, businesses, and government. Students gain basic proficiency in finding and interpreting primary legal sources, applying the law to public health problems, and identifying ways to most effectively influence the legislative, administrative, and judicial lawmaking processes. Prerequisite: HPM 514 (or current enrollment in HPM 514), or permission of the instructor. Not open to auditors.
[ HPM 590, Economics, Addiction, and Policy ]
This course aims to enable students to understand and then develop solutions to the public health problems of addictions in the United States and globally. The two problems addressed this year are (1) the opioid crisis; and (2) harmful health behaviors and habits, e.g., use of tobacco, overeating, and alcohol abuse. The first part of the course builds the knowledge base about these problems. In the second part, students actively participate in debates, panels, etc., and in developing and scaling (in theory) solutions. The course focuses on establishing the causes of and then solutions to these behaviors and problems. It covers facts and findings from the literature; analytic methods used in the literature to establish causality and evidence on effectiveness of alternative solutions; rational and behavioral economic models of behaviors; methods to evaluate social impact; and how to scale through government policies, social entrepreneurship, start-ups, and collaborations with foundations or businesses. Solutions are based on analyses of the problems, evidence on the effectiveness of related or parallel solutions, and efforts to innovate and perhaps even “disrupt.” Students must analyze the problem and propose solutions, which could be—but do not have to be—pursued; that is, the proposals can be on paper only, but nonetheless there must be a plan for scaling the project or policy to have important social impacts, at least in theory. Weekly assignments and a final project are required. 1 Course cr
HPM 592b, Mental Health Care Policy in the US Susan Busch
This course is designed for students with limited previous exposure to mental health policy. The goals of the course are to provide students with the tools to evaluate alternative mental health policies and to better understand potential effects, sometimes unintended, of government and private policies related to mental health care. By the end of the course students should be able to approach a problem in mental health policy by defining the policy, assessing possible solutions, and making a recommendation. Students are expected to have previously taken an introductory economics course. This requirement can be satisfied by any course in the Yale Economics Department, HPM 586, or an introductory economics course taken at another university. If you are unsure if a course fulfills this requirement, you may email the instructor information about the course you have taken (e.g., syllabus, textbook used, course number, title and description). The goal of this prerequisite is that all students be familiar with the language of economics as several of the readings will consider models commonly used in economics. Not open to auditors.
HPM 595b, Food and Drug Administration Law Aaron Kesselheim
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is the premier consumer protection agency in the United States, with control over the availability and public discourse about potentially lifesaving therapeutics, foods, supplements, and related consumer products. Its authority has been built in response to public health crises and is constantly under scrutiny from all sides of the political spectrum. The class reviews the history of the FDA’s regulation over the health care products market, the noteworthy legislation that has shaped its oversight in this area, Supreme Court and other cases that have impacted its authority, and an introduction to key current controversies related to the FDA that affect health care delivery. (This course does not cover food law.) The enduring theme is how the FDA balances its vital public safety role against countervailing forces of personal autonomy and the rights or interests of consumers, patients, physicians, and corporations. Each class is organized around interactive discussion introducing students to the material, including hypothetical cases that require students to apply the day’s lessons and themes in determining legal and policy solutions. Students with high-quality papers will be given specific guidance in submitting them for publication in the peer-reviewed medical/public health/policy literature. A paper of 2,500–4,000 words is required.
HPM 597b, Capstone Course in Health Policy Jamie Tam
This course is designed as the capstone educational experience for students concentrating in health policy. It integrates previous course work in health policy and public health and facilitates students’ transition from the academic setting into the world of professional policy analysis. Students practice different approaches to policy formulation, policy analysis, and policy implementation. As part of their course assignments, students use various strategies to frame policy debates to promote desired outcomes. There is extensive work on improving oral and written presentation skills pertinent to current, applied policy dilemmas. Prerequisite: EPH 510 or equivalent. Not open to auditors.
HPM 600a or b, Independent Study or Directed Readings Staff
Independent study or directed readings on a specific research topic agreed upon by faculty and student. By arrangement with faculty. For Ph.D. students only.
HPM 610b, Applied Area Readings Staff
Required of HPM Ph.D. students, in preparation for qualifying exams. Readings arranged with specific faculty in related research area. By arrangement with faculty.
HPM 617a and HPM 618b, Colloquium in Health Services Research Jason Hockenberry
This seminar focuses on the analysis of current issues in health policy and on state-of-the-art methodological issues in health services research. The format includes guest speakers and presentations of ongoing research projects by YSPH and other faculty and graduate students. Students participate in critical discussions of the issues that arise in both types of sessions. Prerequisite: doctoral status or permission of the instructor. 0 Course cr per term
HPM 620b, Readings in Health Services Research Staff
In-depth readings, discussion, and analysis of topics specific to health policy research. Optional for Ph.D. students choosing this area of depth. By arrangement with faculty.
HPM 630b, Advanced Readings in Health Services Research Staff
In-depth readings, discussion, and analysis of topics specific to health services research. Optional for Ph.D. students choosing this area of depth. By arrangement with faculty.
HPM 631b, Public Health Entrepreneurship and Intrapreneurship Teresa Chahine
This course aims to familiarize students with the principles and practice of innovation and entrepreneurship in the context of public health, as defined by the well-being of society, focusing on social and environmental determinants of health. We examine a set of public health challenges within the context of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), using a hybrid method combining case studies and assignments. Case studies provide an opportunity to analyze cross-cutting challenges faced by innovators and entrepreneurs in the field of public health. Assignments allow students to dig deeper into specific topic areas within public health innovation and entrepreneurship. The target audience for this course includes graduate and undergraduate students in the M.B.A., M.A.M., M.P.H., and other programs at Yale SOM, the School of Public Health, and across campus. The course is a precursor, but not a prerequisite, for ENV 632/MGT 612, where students design ventures tackling social challenges through new or existing organizations. Not open to auditors. ½ Course cr
[ HPM 645, The Chinese and U.S. Health Systems in Comparative Perspective ]
This course aims for an in-depth understanding of the Chinese and American health systems, the two largest health systems in the world. While the two countries are in very different stages of development, their health systems have much in common, and the recent reform of Chinese health systems has largely followed the United States. This course summarizes principles regarding health systems and reform that may apply to both countries and explains why they are different in other main aspects. The course discusses well-crafted research that adopts appropriate research designs and techniques to evaluate health policies and reform in both countries through lectures, writing referee reports, and designing individual research projects. The course highlights the importance of causal inference in evaluating and guiding health policies and reform. Students also learn skills in transforming research findings to policy and propose viable solutions to address key health challenges in China, the United States, and globally when applicable. Prerequisite: familiarity with basic statistics/econometrics. The formal requirement is one term of statistics/econometrics (EPH 505, HPM 583, or a similar course) or permission of the instructor. First-year M.P.H. students are permitted to take this course and HPM 583 (or another methods course) concurrently, providing them opportunities to work with health care data companies in funded summer internships. 1 Course cr
HPM 688b, Managing Health Care in Complex Systems Staff
This course serves as a capstone for students in the Health Care Management Program and is intended to prepare students for leadership roles in diverse health care organizations domestically and internationally. Drawing on theories, concepts, and tools from prior course work, students address complex challenges in health care leadership and management to improve functioning of teams, organizations, and agencies in health systems. Students apply principles and practices of grand strategy (e.g., a comprehensive approach to achieving large ends with limited means) to address a consequential problem in health. An interdisciplinary lens is essential. Disciplinary foci include: leadership/management; organizational behavior; finance/accounting/economics; policy and regulations; operations; marketing; negotiations; epidemiology; and research methods including literature reviews. Students engage with the content through in-class exercises, facilitated discussions, readings, cases (from U.S. domestic and international settings), guest experts, working in a team, and written and oral presentations.
Th 1pm-2:50pm, Th 5pm-5:50pm
HPM 697a, Health Policy Leadership Seminar Shelley Geballe
This seminar introduces students to innovative health policy leaders working in federal, state, and local government, nonprofit policy/advocacy organizations, business, and/or health policy-oriented foundations. The speakers present on a variety of current health policy issues and also reflect on their own career paths. The seminar, required of Health Policy students, meets biweekly at the end of the day with a light dinner served. Although no credit or grade is awarded, satisfactory performance will be noted on the student’s transcript. 0 Course cr