African Studies

Director of undergraduate studies: Daniel Magaziner, 2685 HGS, 432-6110,; director of the Program in African Languages: Kiarie Wa'Njogu, 309B LUCE, 432-0110,;


Professors Lea Brilmayer (Law School), John Darnell (Near Eastern Languages & Civilizations), Owen Fiss (Law School), Robert Harms (History), Andrew Hill (Anthropology), Roderick McIntosh (Anthropology), Christopher Miller (African American Studies, French), Nicoli Nattrass (Ethics, Politics, & Economics) (Visiting), Catherine Panter-Brick (Anthropology), Lamin Sanneh (History, Divinity School), Jeremy Seekings (Global Affairs) (Visiting), Ian Shapiro (Political Science), Robert Thompson (History of Art), Christopher Udry (Economics), Michael Veal (Music), David Watts (Anthropology), Elisabeth Wood (Political Science)

Associate Professors Robert Bailis (Forestry & Environmental Studies), Daniel Magaziner (History)

Assistant Professors Katharine Baldwin (Political Science), Adria Lawrence (Political Science), Louisa Lombard (Anthropology), Jonathan Wyrtzen (Sociology)

Senior Lecturer Cheryl Doss (Economics)

Lecturers Lacina Coulibaly (Theater Studies), Anne-Marie Foltz (Public Health), David Simon (Political Science)

Senior Lectors II Sandra Sanneh, Kiarie Wa'Njogu

Senior Lectors Oluseye Adesola, Matuku Ngame

The program in African Studies enables students to undertake interdisciplinary study of the arts, history, cultures, politics, and development of Africa. As a foundation, students in the program gain a cross-disciplinary exposure to Africa. In the junior and senior years, students develop analytical ability and focus their studies on research in a particular discipline such as anthropology, art history, history, languages and literatures, political science, or sociology or on topics such as global health, economic development, or human rights.

African Studies provides training of special interest to those considering admission to graduate or professional schools or careers in education, journalism, law, management, medicine, politics, psychology, international relations, creative writing, or social work. The interdisciplinary structure of the program offers students an opportunity to satisfy the increasingly rigorous expectations of admissions committees and prospective employers for a broad liberal arts perspective that complements specialized knowledge of a field.

Requirements of the major for the Class of 2018 and previous classes Students in the Class of 2018 and previous classes may fulfill the requirements of the African Studies major that were in place when they entered the major, as described in previous editions of this bulletin. Alternatively, they may fulfill the requirements for the major as described below for the Class of 2019 and subsequent classes.

Requirements of the major for the Class of 2019 and subsequent classes The program in African Studies consists of thirteen term courses, including (1) one African Studies course in the humanities and one in the social sciences; (2) two years of an African language (Arabic, Kiswahili, Yorùbá, isiZulu, or others with permission of the director of undergraduate studies), unless waived by examination; (3) AFST 401, the junior seminar on research methods, or an alternative course that either serves to deepen the concentration or provide methodological tools for the senior essay; and (4) a concentration of four term courses and one research methods seminar, selected in consultation with the director of undergraduate studies, in a discipline such as anthropology, art history, history, languages and literatures, political science, or sociology, or in an interdisciplinary program such as African American Studies, Ethnicity, Race, and Migration, or Women’s, Gender, and Sexuality Studies, or in a cross-disciplinary area such as diaspora studies or development studies.

The required courses represent the core of the program and are intended to expose the student both to the interdisciplinary nature of African studies and to the methodologies currently being brought to bear on the study of African cultures and societies. With permission of the director of undergraduate studies, students may count courses in an additional language, such as French or Portuguese, toward the major requirements. Students are encouraged to include upper-level courses, especially those centering on research and methodology.

Students planning to major in African Studies should consult the director of undergraduate studies as early as possible.

Senior requirement Students are required to complete a senior essay in AFST 491, working under the guidance of a faculty adviser. With prior approval by the director of undergraduate studies, a combined senior essay may be submitted for those pursuing a double major.

A preliminary statement indicating the topic to be addressed and the name of the faculty adviser must be submitted to the director of undergraduate studies by the end of the second week of the fall term in the senior year. 

Language requirement African Studies majors are required to complete two years of college-level study (or the equivalent) of an African language, and they are encouraged to continue beyond this level. For the language requirement to be waived, a student must pass a placement test for admission into an advanced-level course or, for languages not regularly offered at Yale, an equivalent test of speaking, listening, reading, and writing skills administered through the Center for Language Study. Students should begin their language study as early as possible. If the requirement is waived, students must substitute other African Studies courses for the four required language courses.

Program in African Languages The language program offers instruction in four major languages from sub-Saharan Africa: Kiswahili (eastern and central Africa), Yorùbá (western Africa), Wolof (western Africa) and isiZulu (southern Africa). African language courses emphasize communicative competence, using multimedia materials that focus on the contemporary African context. Course sequences are designed to enable students to achieve advanced competence in all skill areas by the end of the third year, and students are encouraged to spend a summer or term in Africa during their language study.

Courses in Arabic are offered through the Department of Near Eastern Languages and Civilizations. Noncredit instruction in other African languages is available by application through the Directed Independent Language Study program at the Center for Language Study. Contact the director of the Program in African Languages for information.

M.A. program Students in Yale College are eligible to complete the M.A. in African Studies in one year of graduate work if they begin the program in the third and fourth undergraduate years. Students interested in this option must complete eight graduate courses in the area by the time of the completion of the bachelor’s degree. Only two courses may be counted toward both graduate and undergraduate degrees. Successful completion of graduate courses while still an undergraduate does not guarantee admission into the M.A. program.


Prerequisites None

Number of courses 13 term courses (incl senior req)

Distribution of courses 1 AFST course in humanities and 1 in social sciences; 2 years of African lang; 4 courses and 1 research methods seminar in area of concentration

Specific course requiredAFST 401, or an alternative arranged in consultation with the DUS

Senior requirement Senior essay (AFST 491)

Substitution permitted If language req is waived, 4 addtl African Studies courses

African Studies Courses

* AFST 001a / ARCG 001a / NELC 001a, Egypt and Northeast Africa: A Multidisciplinary Approach John Darnell

Examination of approximately 10,000 years of Nile Valley cultural history, with an introduction to the historical and archaeological study of Egypt and Nubia. Consideration of the Nile Valley as the meeting place of the cultures and societies of northeast Africa. Various written and visual sources are used, including the collections of the Peabody Museum and the Yale Art Gallery. Enrollment limited to freshmen. Preregistration required; see under Freshman Seminar Program.  WR, HU

* AFST 008a / AFAM 008a / HSAR 009a, Aesthetics and Meaning in African Arts and Cultures Erica James

The diversity of artistic production on the African continent, both historically and materially. The creative consciousness and aesthetic values of a variety of African cultures from ancient to contemporary times. Questions that arise when writing these histories without fully taking into account concepts of "African time." Enrollment limited to freshmen. Preregistration required; see under Freshman Seminar Program.  HU

* AFST 015a / ENGL 015a, South African Writing after Apartheid Stephanie Newell

An introduction to creative writing published in South Africa from the end of Apartheid in 1994 to the present. Close readings of contemporary fiction with additional material drawn from popular culture, including films, magazines, and music. Enrollment limited to freshmen. Preregistration required; see under Freshman Seminar Program.  WR, HU

AFST 112a / ARCG 222a / NELC 112a / RLST 141a, Egyptian Religion through the Ages John Darnell

Diachronic approach to topics in Egyptian religion. Religious architecture, evidence for protodynastic cults, foreigners in Egyptian religious celebrations, music and vocal expression in Egyptian religion, Re and Osiris, the Amarna interlude and the Ramesside solar religion, and the goddess of the eye of the sun. Readings in translation.  HU

* AFST 150a / HIST 409Ja, Global Black Power Daniel Magaziner

The global dimension of black people's struggles for self-determination and authority from the late eighteenth century to the present. Various experiences of, and responses to, slavery, emancipation, segregation, scientific racism, and enlightenment democracy. The Haitian revolution, the Back to Africa movement, Garveyite nationalism, religious expression, African independence, armed revolution, and urban politics.  WR, HU

AFST 180b / ER&M 313b, Nigeria and Its Diaspora Oluseye Adesola

Nigerians in the modern diaspora, both those who endured forced migration and those who migrated voluntarily. Specific reference to the Igbos and the Yorùbás. The preservation and maintenance of Nigerian culture, history, dance, literature, traditional education, theater, politics, art, music, film, religion, and folklore, especially in African American and Nigerian American contexts.  SO

AFST 184a / AFAM 160a / AMST 160a / HIST 184a, The Rise and Fall of Atlantic Slavery Edward Rugemer

The history of peoples of African descent throughout the Americas, from the first African American societies of the sixteenth century through the century-long process of emancipation.  HU

* AFST 188b / AFAM 260b / ER&M 278b / HSAR 468b, The Black Atlantic Visual Tradition Robert Thompson

Introduction to key African civilizations and to important recent work in the art of Africa and the Afro-Atlantic world. Study of the art and culture of major civilizations, e.g. the Yoruba, and the continuity of their art in the New World. In-depth discussions, based on readings and weekly response papers. Study trips to Yale University Art Gallery’s newly displayed collections of African Art.  HU

* AFST 217b / ER&M 237b, Change and Mobility in Contemporary Africa Veronica Waweru

In-depth analysis of contemporary and emerging transitions, changes, and shifts in African societies. When seen from ethnic perspectives, African issues are presented as static and predictable, however the impact of changes in public health, resource exploitation, revivalist Islamic movements, human trafficking, and the African Union have global reach.  SO

AFST 221b / ARCG 221b / HSAR 234b / NELC 120b, Egyptomania John Darnell

Conceptual underpinnings of the use of ancient Egyptian motifs in architecture, painting, sculpture, and decorative arts throughout western Europe, the Middle East, and North America from antiquity to the present.  HU

AFST 238a / AMST 238a / ER&M 238a, Introduction to Third World Studies Gary Okihiro

Introduction to the historical and contemporary theories and articulations of Third World studies (comparative ethnic studies) as an academic field and practice. Consideration of subject matters; methodologies and theories; literatures; and practitioners and institutional arrangements.  SO

AFST 262a / AFAM 241a / MUSI 262a, Traditional and Contemporary Musics of Sub-Saharan Africa Michael Veal

A survey of the traditional and popular musics of black Africa, organized both by nation, such as Ghana, and by region, such as Senegambia. Introduction to the fundamental musical principles, materials, and performance contexts of African music.  WR

AFST 272b / ANTH 272b / ARCG 272b, African Prehistory Roderick McIntosh

Survey of archaeological evidence for the original contributions of the African continent to the human condition. The unresolved issues of African prehistory, from the time of the first hominids, through development of food production and metallurgy, to the rise of states and cities.  SO

* AFST 303a / EP&E 303a / SOCY 330a, Civil Sphere and Democracy Jeffrey Alexander

In dialogue with normative and empirical approaches to civil society, this course examines civil sphere theory. The sacred and profane binaries that animate the civil sphere are studied, as are such civil sphere organizations as polls, mass media, electoral system, law, and office. Topics include: United States presidential elections, immigration and its controversies, the civil rights movement, the crisis of contemporary journalism, recent controversies over church pedophilia, the financial system, telephone hacking, and the challenge of de-provincializing civil sphere theory. one intermediate sociology course, or by permission of the instructor.  HU, SO

* AFST 305b / GLBL 305b, Social Enterprise in Developing Economies I Robert Hopkins

Harnessing the power of markets in the fight against poverty. The use of social enterprise to foster local empowerment and establish the building blocks of regional economic development. Measuring the impact of grants and program-related investments from philanthropic organizations and for-profit corporations. Students design summer research projects. Followed by GLBL 306 in the fall term.  SO

* AFST 326b / AFAM 343b / ENGL 231b / JDST 325b / LITR 343b, Literatures of Blacks and Jews from the Twentieth Century Andrew Caplan

Comparative study of representative writings by African, Caribbean, and African American authors of the past one hundred years, together with European, American, and South African Jewish authors writing in Yiddish, Hebrew, French, and English. Examination of the paradoxically central role played by minority, or marginal groups, in the creation of modern literature and the articulation of the modern experience.  HU

AFST 333a / HIST 332a, African Encounters with Colonialism Daniel Magaziner

How African societies and peoples encountered, engaged, and endured the colonial and postcolonial world, from the arrival of Kiswahili-speaking traders at the shores of Lake Victoria in the 1840s through the rise and fall of European colonialism and the resulting forms of neocolonialism. Transformations and continuities in African religious life; gendered sociability; popular culture.  HU

AFST 335b / ER&M 325b / HIST 335b, A History of South Africa Daniel Magaziner

An introduction to the history of southern Africa, especially South Africa. Indigenous communities; early colonial contact; the legacies of colonial rule; postcolonial mismanagement; the vagaries of the environment; the mineral revolution; segregationist regimes; persistent inequality and crime since the end of apartheid; the specter of AIDS; postcolonial challenges in Zimbabwe, Angola, and Mozambique.

AFST 340b / HIST 340b, Africa in the Era of the Slave Trade Robert Harms

Examination of the tumultuous changes experienced by African societies during the era of the Atlantic slave trade, approximately 1450–1850. Focus on the complex interaction between the internal dynamics of African societies and the impact of outside forces.  HU

* AFST 347a / EP&E 484a / GLBL 243a / LAST 348a / PLSC 347a, Post-Conflict Politics David Simon

Consideration of a range of issues and challenges faced by countries emerging from domestic conflict. Focus on elements of peace-building—disarmament and demobilization, post-conflict elections, institution-building, and reconstruction—as well as modes of transitional justice and mechanisms for truth and reconciliation.  SO

* AFST 348b / MMES 291b / SOCY 232b, Islamic Social Movements Jonathan Wyrtzen

Social movement theory used to analyze the emergence and evolution of Islamic movements from the early twentieth century to the present. Organization, mobilization, political process, and framing of political, nonpolitical, militant, and nonmilitant movements; transnational dimensions of Islamic activism. Case studies include the Muslim Brotherhood, Hamas, Hizbollah, Al-Qaeda, Gulen, Al-Adl wa-Ihsann, Islamic State, and others.  SO

* AFST 373b / GLBL 362b / MMES 282b / SOCY 339b, Imperialism, Insurgency, and State Building in the Middle East and North Africa Jonathan Wyrtzen

The historical evolution of political order from Morocco to Central Asia in the past two centuries. Focus on relationships between imperialism, insurgency, and state building. Ottoman, European, and nationalist strategies for state building; modes of local resistance; recent transnational developments; American counterinsurgency and nation-building initiatives in the region.  SO

* AFST 380a / PLSC 402a / WGSS 373a, Gender, Sexuality, and Human Rights in Africa Lyn Ossome

Interrogation of the powerful role of human rights as an organizing discourse and hegemonic order through examination of shifting state sovereignties; political economy of human rights in Africa and beyond, with a focus on the dialectical relationships between access to resources, political power, and global capitalism; identity politics and policing of identities through human rights; liberal democratic regimes; institutionalization of human rights; and the emancipatory potential of human rights.  SO

AFST 385a / PLSC 385a, Introduction to African Politics Jason Stearns

Themes in contemporary African politics, including the impact of colonialism, the challenges of geography, and the effects of economic and political reform attempts and of efforts at resistance. Comparative introduction to the politics of various African countries.  SO

* AFST 394b / SOCY 394b, Middle Class Milieus in the Global South Florian Stoll

Examination of the lifestyles and everyday cultures of middle-class milieus in Kenya, Brazil, and other countries in Africa, South America, and Asia. Culture-based study of phenomena in the emerging middle strata of the Global South, including the use of technology, family relations, and ethnicity/race. Students learn to use milieu analysis for the study of sociocultural particularities in very different contexts.  SO

* AFST 401a, Research Methods in African Studies Veronica Waweru

Disciplinary and interdisciplinary research methodologies in African studies, with emphasis on field methods and archival research in the social sciences and humanities. Research methodologies are compared by studying recent works in African studies.

* AFST 413b / GLBL 328b / PLSC 413b, Governance in Africa Malte Lierl

Engagement with governance problems in developing countries, without taking policy rhetoric of the international development sector at face value. Identification of governance failures and innovative solutions. Basic understanding of social science research methods and interest in the international development sector is assumed.  

AFST 420a / LAST 406a / PLSC 430a, The Politics of Development Assistance David Simon

Study of development assistance, a dominant feature of the political economies of some of the world's poorest countries. The motivations and politics of aid from donors' perspectives; the political and economic impact of aid on developing countries. Proposals to make aid a more effective instrument of development.  SO

* AFST 430b, Language Planning in Sub-Saharan Africa Kiarie Wa'Njogu

Examination of language policies in selected sub-Saharan African countries. Analysis of language use in different contexts; assessment of the impact of globalization on African languages.  HU

* AFST 432b / PLSC 414b, Development and Democracy in Africa David Simon

Introduction to development challenges in Africa. Use of current social science research to examine the driving forces behind Africa's poor development outcomes and to explore options for changing Africa's development trajectory. The effectiveness of democratization as a broad development tool. Evaluation of micro-level projects designed to tackle specific problems.  SO

* AFST 435b / THST 335b, West African Dance: Traditional to Contemporary Lacina Coulibaly

A practical and theoretical study of the traditional dances of Africa, focusing on those of Burkina Faso and their contemporary manifestations. Emphasis on rhythm, kinesthetic form, and gestural expression. The fusion of modern European dance and traditional African dance. Admission by audition during the first class meeting.  HURP

* AFST 449b / ENGL 449b, Challenges to Realism in Contemporary African Fiction Stephanie Newell

Introduction to experimental African novels that challenge realist and documentary modes of representation. Topics include mythology, gender subversion, politics, the city, migration, and the self. Ways of reading African and postcolonial literature through the lenses of identity, history, and nation.  WR, HU

* AFST 471a and AFST 472b, Independent Study Daniel Magaziner

Independent research under the direction of a faculty member in the program on a special topic in African Studies not covered in other courses. Permission of the director of undergraduate studies and of the instructor directing the research is required. A proposal signed by the instructor must be submitted to the director of undergraduate studies by the end of the second week of classes. The instructor meets with the student regularly, typically for an hour a week, and the student writes a final paper or a series of short essays. Either term or both terms may be elected.

* AFST 486a / HIST 388Ja, Slavery and the Slave Trade in Africa Robert Harms

The slave trade from the African perspective. Analysis of why slavery developed in Africa and how it operated. The long-term social, political, and economic effects of the Atlantic slave trade.  WR, HU

* AFST 487a / HIST 387Ja, West African Islam: Jihad Tradition and Its Pacifist Opponents Lamin Sanneh

The influence of Islam on state and society, and the encounters of Muslim Africans first with non-Muslim societies in Africa and then with the modern West in the colonial and postcolonial periods. Focus on Muslim religious attitudes and responses to the secular national state and to the Western tradition of the separation of church and state.  WR, HU

* AFST 491a or b, The Senior Essay Staff

Independent research on the senior essay. By the end of the sixth week of classes, a rough draft of the entire essay should be completed. By the end of the last week of classes (fall term) or three weeks before the end of classes (spring term), two copies of the final essay must be submitted.

Kiswahili Courses

SWAH 110a, Beginning Kiswahili I Kiarie Wa'Njogu

A beginning course with intensive training and practice in speaking, listening, reading, and writing. Initial emphasis is on the spoken language and conversation. Credit only on completion of SWAH 120.  L11½ Course cr

SWAH 120b, Beginning Kiswahili II Kiarie Wa'Njogu

Continuation of SWAH 110. Texts provide an introduction to the basic structure of Kiswahili and to the culture of the speakers of the language. Prerequisite: SWAH 110.  L21½ Course cr

SWAH 130a, Intermediate Kiswahili I Veronica Waweru

Further development of students' speaking, listening, reading, and writing skills. Prepares students for further work in literary, language, and cultural studies as well as for a functional use of Kiswahili. Study of structure and vocabulary is based on a variety of texts from traditional and popular culture. Emphasis on command of idiomatic usage and stylistic nuance. After SWAH 120.  L31½ Course cr

SWAH 140b, Intermediate Kiswahili II Veronica Waweru

Continuation of SWAH 130. After SWAH 130.  L41½ Course cr

SWAH 150a, Advanced Kiswahili I Kiarie Wa'Njogu

Development of fluency through readings and discussions on contemporary issues in Kiswahili. Introduction to literary criticism in Kiswahili. Materials include Kiswahili oral literature, prose, poetry, and plays, as well as texts drawn from popular and political culture. After SWAH 140.  L5

SWAH 160b, Advanced Kiswahili II Kiarie Wa'Njogu

Continuation of SWAH 150. After SWAH 150.  L5

SWAH 170a and SWAH 171b, Topics in Kiswahili Literature Kiarie Wa'Njogu

Advanced readings and discussion with emphasis on literary and historical texts. Reading assignments include materials on Kiswahili poetry, Kiswahili dialects, and the history of the language. After SWAH 160.  L5, HU

Yoruba Courses

YORU 110a, Beginning Yorùbá I Oluseye Adesola

Training and practice in speaking, listening, reading, and writing. Initial emphasis is on the spoken aspect, with special attention to unfamiliar consonantal sounds, nasal vowels, and tone, using isolated phrases, set conversational pieces, and simple dialogues. Multimedia materials provide audio practice and cultural information. Credit only on completion of YORU 120.  L11½ Course cr

YORU 120b, Beginning Yorùbá II Oluseye Adesola

Continuing practice in using and recognizing tone through dialogues. More emphasis is placed on simple cultural texts and role playing. Prerequisite: YORU 110.  L21½ Course cr

YORU 130a, Intermediate Yorùbá I Oluseye Adesola

Refinement of students' speaking, listening, reading, and writing skills. More natural texts are provided to prepare students for work in literary, language, and cultural studies as well as for a functional use of Yorùbá. After YORU 120.  L31½ Course cr

YORU 140b, Intermediate Yorùbá II Oluseye Adesola

Students are exposed to more idiomatic use of the language in a variety of interactions, including occupational, social, religious, and educational. Cultural documents include literary and nonliterary texts. After YORU 130.  L41½ Course cr

YORU 150a, Advanced Yorùbá I Oluseye Adesola

An advanced course intended to improve students' aural and reading comprehension as well as speaking and writing skills. Emphasis on acquiring a command of idiomatic usage and stylistic nuance. Study materials include literary and nonliterary texts; social, political, and popular entertainment media such as movies and recorded poems (ewì); and music. After YORU 140.  L5

YORU 160b, Advanced Yorùbá II Oluseye Adesola

Continuing development of students' aural and reading comprehension and speaking and writing skills, with emphasis on idiomatic usage and stylistic nuance. Study materials are selected to reflect research interests of the students. After YORU 150.  L5

YORU 170a and YORU 171b, Topics in Yorùbá Literature and Culture Staff

Advanced readings and discussion concerning Yorùbá literature and culture. Focus on Yorùbá history, poetry, novels, movies, dramas, and oral folklore, especially from Nigeria. Insight into Yorùbá philosophy and ways of life. Prerequisite: YORU 160.  L5, HU

YORU 180a and YORU 181b, Advanced Topics in Yorùbá Literature and Culture Staff

Designed for students with superior proficiency in Yorùbá who have an interest in topics not otherwise covered by existing courses. Development of language proficiency to the level of an educated native speaker. Discussion of advanced readings on Yorùbá philosophy, history, literature, and culture.  L5

Zulu Courses

ZULU 110a, Beginning isiZulu I Sandra Sanneh

A beginning course in conversational isiZulu, using Web-based materials filmed in South Africa. Emphasis on the sounds of the language, including clicks and tonal variation, and on the words and structures needed for initial social interaction. Brief dialogues concern everyday activities; aspects of contemporary Zulu culture are introduced through readings and documentaries in English. Credit only on completion of ZULU 120.  L11½ Course cr

ZULU 120b, Beginning isiZulu II Sandra Sanneh

Development of communication skills through dialogues and role play. Texts and songs are drawn from traditional and popular literature. Students research daily life in selected areas of South Africa. Prerequisite: ZULU 110.  L21½ Course cr

ZULU 130a, Intermediate isiZulu I Sandra Sanneh

Development of fluency in speaking, listening, reading, and writing, using Web-based materials filmed in South Africa. Students describe and narrate spoken and written paragraphs. Review of morphology; concentration on tense and aspect. Materials are drawn from contemporary popular culture, folklore, and mass media. After ZULU 120.  L31½ Course cr

ZULU 140b, Intermediate isiZulu II Sandra Sanneh

Students read longer texts from popular media as well as myths and folktales. Prepares students for initial research involving interaction with speakers of isiZulu in South Africa and for the study of oral and literary genres. After ZULU 130.  L41½ Course cr

* ZULU 150a, Advanced isiZulu I Sandra Sanneh

Development of fluency in using idioms, speaking about abstract concepts, and voicing preferences and opinions. Excerpts from oral genres, short stories, and television dramas. Introduction to other South African languages and to issues of standardization, dialect, and language attitude. After ZULU 140. Course includes students from Cornell University via videoconference.  L5

* ZULU 160b, Advanced isiZulu II Staff

Readings may include short stories, a novel, praise poetry, historical texts, or contemporary political speeches, depending on student interests. Study of issues of language policy and use in contemporary South Africa; introduction to the Soweto dialect of isiZulu. Students are prepared for extended research in South Africa involving interviews with isiZulu speakers. After ZULU 150. Course includes students from Cornell University via videoconference.  L5