Latin American Studies

Director of undergraduate studies: Ana De La O, C122, 77 Prospect St., 432-5234,;


Professors Rolena Adorno (Spanish & Portuguese), Ned Blackhawk (History, American Studies), Richard Burger (Anthropology), Hazel Carby (African American Studies, American Studies), Carlos Eire (History, Religious Studies), Eduardo Fernandez-Duque (Anthropology), Paul Freedman (History), Aníbal González (Spanish & Portuguese), Roberto González Echevarría (Spanish & Portuguese), K. David Jackson (Spanish & Portuguese), Gilbert Joseph (History), Stathis Kalyvas (Political Science), Daniel Markovits (Law School), Mary Miller (History of Art), Stephen Pitti (History), Susan Rose-Ackerman (Law School, Political Science), Alicia Schmidt Camacho (American Studies), Stuart Schwartz (History), Susan Stokes (Political Science), Robert Thompson (History of Art), Noël Valis (Spanish & Portuguese), Frederick Wherry (Sociology), Elisabeth Wood (Political Science)

Associate Professors Robert Bailis (Forestry & Environmental Studies), Susan Byrne (Spanish & Portuguese), Rodrigo Canales (School of Management), Ana De La O (Political Science), Moira Fradinger (Comparative Literature)

Assistant Professors Vanessa Agard-Jones (Women's, Gender, & Sexuality Studies), Ryan Bennett (Linguistics), Oswaldo Chinchilla (Anthropology), Marcela Echeverri (History), Anne Eller (History), Leslie Harkema (Spanish & Portuguese), Seth Jacobowitz (East Asian Languages & Literatures), Erica James (History of Art, African American Studies), Albert Laguna (American Studies, Ethnicity, Race, & Migration), Dixa Ramirez (American Studies, Ethnicity, Race, & Migration)

Senior Lectors II Margherita Tortora, Sonia Valle

Senior Lectors Sybil Alexandrov, Marta Almeida, Maria Pilar Asensio-Manrique, Mercedes Carreras, Ame Cividanes, Sebastián Díaz, María de la Paz García, María Jordán, Rosamaría León, Juliana Ramos-Ruano, Lissette Reymundi, Lourdes Sabé-Colom, Bárbara Safille, Terry Seymour

Lector Selma Vital

The major in Latin American Studies is designed to further understanding of the societies and cultures of Latin America as viewed from regional and global perspectives. The Latin American Studies major builds on a foundation of language and literature, history, history of art, theater studies, humanities, and the social sciences; its faculty is drawn from many departments and professional schools of the University.

The major The major in Latin American Studies is interdisciplinary. With two goals in mind—intellectual coherence and individual growth—the student proposes a course of study that must satisfy the requirements listed below. The proposed course of study must be approved by the director of undergraduate studies. Though all students choose courses in both the humanities and the social sciences, they are expected to concentrate on one or the other.

Prerequisite to the major is knowledge of the two dominant languages of the region, Spanish and Portuguese. Depending on their interests, students select one language for two years of instruction and the other for one. Other languages necessary for research may in appropriate circumstances be substituted for the second language with the consent of the director of undergraduate studies. Students are encouraged to meet the language requirements as early as possible. Courses used to satisfy the language prerequisite may not be counted toward the major.

The major itself requires twelve term courses: one introductory course approved by the director of undergraduate studies; eight courses related to Latin America from departmental offerings or from a provided list of electives; two additional electives; and the senior essay, LAST 491. The eight Latin American content courses should include courses from the following categories: two courses in the social sciences (anthropology, economics, or political science); two courses in history; two courses in Spanish American or Brazilian literatures beyond the language requirement; one course in art, architecture, film and media studies, music, or theater studies; and one seminar in any area related to Latin American Studies. Students wishing to count toward the major courses that do not appear in the program's course offerings should consult with the director of undergraduate studies.

Students must enroll in three seminars or upper-level courses during their junior and senior years. Elective seminars must be approved by the director of undergraduate studies, who can provide a list of appropriate courses.

The senior essay The senior essay is a research paper written usually in one term in LAST 491. Students choose their own topics, which may derive from research done in an earlier course. The essay is planned in advance in consultation with a qualified adviser and a second reader.

In preparing the senior essay, Latin American Studies majors may undertake field research in Latin America. Students are encouraged to apply for summer travel grants through the Council on Latin American and Iberian Studies to conduct field research for their senior thesis. The Albert Bildner Travel Prize is awarded to an outstanding junior who submits an application in Spanish or Portuguese in addition to the English application essay. Information about these and other grants is available on Yale's Student Grants & Fellowships Web site.

Other courses relevant to the major A list of courses intended as a guide to students in preparing their programs is available at the office of the director of undergraduate studies and on the Council on Latin American and Iberian Studies Web site. Qualified students may also elect pertinent courses in the Graduate School and in some of the professional schools with permission of the director of graduate studies or professional school registrar and the director of undergraduate studies.

Study abroad Students are strongly encouraged to take advantage of study abroad opportunities during summers or through the Year or Term Abroad program.


Prerequisites 2 years of 1 lang (Spanish or Portuguese), 1 year of the other

Number of courses 12 courses beyond prereqs (incl senior essay)

Distribution of courses 1 intro course approved by DUS; 8 courses related to Latin America in specified fields; 2 electives; 3 sems or upper-level courses in junior and senior years 

Senior requirement Senior essay (LAST 491)

LAST 368b / ER&M 368b / HIST 368b, Political Violence, Citizenship, and Democracy in Latin America Marcela Echeverri Munoz

Exploration of how and when definitions of citizenship and democracy have been shaped by violent conflicts; how local and global contexts have influenced individual and collective political action; and the transformation of leadership, ideologies, and utopias in different Latin American contexts.  HU

Electives within the Major

Students wishing to count toward the major courses that do not appear on this list should consult with the director of undergraduate studies.

AFAM 215b / HSAR 373b, African American Art, 1963 to the Present Erica James

Modern African American artistic production explored in the context of American art and social history. Critical race theory and artistic discourse from the Spiral group in 1963, to the Black Arts Movement and the culture wars, to current readings in American and postblack art. The complicated relations between African American art and politics. Use of art objects from the Yale University Art Gallery.  HU

AFST 333a / HIST 332a, African Encounters with Colonialism Daniel Magaziner

How African societies and peoples encountered, engaged, and endured the colonial and postcolonial world, from the arrival of Kiswahili-speaking traders at the shores of Lake Victoria in the 1840s through the rise and fall of European colonialism and the resulting forms of neocolonialism. Transformations and continuities in African religious life; gendered sociability; popular culture.  HU

* AFST 486a / HIST 388Ja, Slavery and the Slave Trade in Africa Robert Harms

The slave trade from the African perspective. Analysis of why slavery developed in Africa and how it operated. The long-term social, political, and economic effects of the Atlantic slave trade.  WR, HU

* AMST 441b / ER&M 370b / HIST 130Jb, Indians and the Spanish Borderlands Ned Blackhawk

The experiences of Native Americans during centuries of relations with North America's first imperial power, Spain. The history and long-term legacies of Spanish colonialism from Florida to California.  WR, HU

* ANTH 438b, Culture, Power, Oil Douglas Rogers

The production, circulation, and consumption of petroleum as they relate to globalization, empire, cultural performance, natural resource extraction, and the nature of the state. Case studies include the United States, Saudi Arabia, Nigeria, Venezuela, and the former Soviet Union.  SO
Anthropology: Sociocultural

* ECON 465a / EP&E 224a / GLBL 330a, Debating Globalization Ernesto Zedillo

Facets of contemporary economic globalization, including trade, investment, and migration. Challenges and threats of globalization: inclusion and inequality, emerging global players, global governance, climate change, and nuclear weapons proliferation. Prerequisite: background in international economics and data analysis. Preference to seniors majoring in Economics or EP&E.  SORP

* ECON 467b / GLBL 307b, Economic Evolution of the Latin American and Caribbean Countries Ernesto Zedillo

Economic evolution and prospects of the Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) countries. Topics include the period from independence to the 1930s; import substitution and industrialization to the early 1980s; the debt crisis and the "lost decade"; reform and disappointment in the late 1980s and the 1990s; exploration of selected episodes in particular countries; and speculations about the future. Prerequisities: intermediate microeconomics and macroeconomics.  SO

ER&M 200a, Introduction to Ethnicity, Race, and Migration Alicia Camacho

Historical roots of contemporary ethnic and racial formations and competing theories of ethnicity, race, and migration. Cultural constructions and social practices of race, ethnicity, and migration in the United States and around the world.  HU, SO

* ER&M 300b, Comparative Ethnic Studies Laura Barraclough

Introduction to the methods and practice of comparative ethnic studies. Examination of racial formation in the United States within a transnational framework. Legacies of colonialism, slavery, and racial exclusion; racial formation in schools, prisons, and citizenship law; cultural politics of music and performance; social movements; and postcolonial critique.  SO

* EVST 345a / ANTH 382a / F&ES 384a, Environmental Anthropology Carol Carpenter

History of the anthropological study of the environment: nature-culture dichotomy, ecology and social organization, methodological debates, politics of the environment, and knowing the environment.  SO

* EVST 422a / ANTH 409a / ER&M 394 / F&ES 422a, Climate and Society from Past to Present Michael Dove

The history of scholarly thinking on the relationship between climate and society, focusing on the social sciences in general and on anthropology in particular. Historical theories about climate and society since the beginning of human civilization; the importance of such theories for understanding contemporary debates about climate change. Special attention to current debates regarding climate politics and science denial.  SO

* F&ES 020a / EVST 020a, Sustainable Development in Haiti Gordon Geballe

The principles and practice of sustainable development explored in the context of Haiti's rich history and culture, as well as its current environmental and economic impoverishment. Enrollment limited to freshmen. Preregistration required; see under Freshman Seminar Program.  WR

* FILM 363a / LITR 360a, Radical Cinemas of Latin America Moira Fradinger

Introduction to Latin American cinema, with an emphasis on post–World War II films produced in Cuba, Argentina, Brazil, and Mexico. Examination of each film in its historical and aesthetic aspects, and in light of questions concerning national cinema and "third cinema." Examples from both pre-1945 and contemporary films. Conducted in English; knowledge of Spanish and Portuguese helpful but not required.  HU

GLBL 247b / PLSC 128b, Development Under Fire Jason Lyall

The recent emergence of foreign assistance as a tool of counterinsurgency and post-conflict reconciliation. Evaluation of the effects of aid in settings such as Afghanistan, Iraq, Colombia, and the Philippines. Examination of both theory and practice of conducting development work in the shadow of violence. Strengths and weaknesses of different evaluation methods, including randomized control trials (RCTs) and survey experiments.  SO
Global Affairs: Development
Global Affairs: Security

GLBL 263b / PLSC 439b, Challenges of Young Democracies Ana De La O

Challenges faced by young democracies, such as organizing free and fair elections, controlling government corruption, building an accountable system of governance, sustaining development, and curtailing conflict and violence. Factors that lead to the consolidation of democratic politics or to stagnation and a return to nondemocratic political systems.  SO
Global Affairs: Security

HIST 325a, Introduction to Latin American History Anne Eller

Critical themes and events in Latin American history from pre-Columbian times to the present. Major formative epochs such as the pre-Columbian era, colonization, independence, and contemporary moments; modern political flashpoints, including Haiti, Cuba, Argentina, and Peru.  HU

* HSHM 422a / HIST 467Ja, Cartography, Territory, and Identity William Rankin

Exploration of how maps shape assumptions about territory, land, sovereignty, and identity. The relationship between scientific cartography and conquest, the geography of statecraft, religious cartographies, encounters between Western and non-Western cultures, and reactions to cartographic objectivity. Students make their own maps. No previous experience in cartography or graphic design required.  WR, HU

LAST 214b / AFAM 186b / PLSC 378b / SOCY 170b, Contesting Injustice Elisabeth Wood

Exploration of why, when, and how people organize collectively to challenge political, social, and economic injustice. Cross-national comparison of the extent, causes, and consequences of inequality. Analysis of mobilizations for social justice in both U.S. and international settings. Intended primarily for freshmen and sophomores.  SO

* LAST 221b / PORT 220b, Reading Contemporary Poetry K. David Jackson

Oral practice, reading, interpretation, and performance of Portuguese poetry from literary modernism to the present. Emphasis on contemporary Brazilian poetry; attention to historical and critical background. Prerequisite: PORT 140 or equivalent.  L5, HU

* LAST 222a / SPAN 222a, Legal Spanish Mercedes Carreras

An introduction to Spanish and Latin American legal culture with a focus on the specific traits of legal language and on the development of advanced language competence. Issues such as human rights, the death penalty, the jury, contracts, statutory instruments, and rulings by the constitutional courts are explored through law journal articles, newspapers, the media, and mock trials. Enrollment limited to 18. A maximum of one course in the 200-230 range may count as an elective toward the Spanish major.  L5

* LAST 223b / SPAN 223b, Spanish in Film: An Introduction to the New Latin American Cinema Margherita Tortora

Development of proficiency in Spanish through analysis of critically acclaimed Latin American films. Includes basic vocabulary of film criticism in Spanish as well as discussion and language exercises. Enrollment limited to 18.  L5

* LAST 225b / SPAN 225b, Spanish for the Medical Professions Mercedes Carreras

Topics in health and welfare. Conversation, reading, and writing about medical issues for advanced Spanish-language students, including those considering careers in medical professions. Enrollment limited to 18.  L5

* LAST 227a / SPAN 227a, Creative Writing María Jordán

An introduction to the craft and practice of creative writing (fiction, poetry, and essays). Focus on the development of writing skills and awareness of a variety of genres and techniques through reading of exemplary works and critical assessment of student work. Emphasis on the ability to write about abstract ideas, sentiments, dreams, and the imaginary world. Enrollment limited to 18. A maximum of one course in the 200-230 range may count as an elective toward the Spanish major.  L5

LAST 232a / ANTH 232a / ARCG 232a, Ancient Civilizations of the Andes Richard Burger

Survey of the archaeological cultures of Peru and Bolivia from the earliest settlement through the late Inca state.  SO

* LAST 243a or b / SPAN 243a or b, Advanced Spanish Grammar Staff

A comprehensive, in-depth study of grammar intended to improve students' spoken and written command of Spanish. Linguistic analysis of literary selections; some English-to-Spanish translation. Enrollment limited to 18.   L5

* LAST 253a / HIST 253Ja, Culture, Dissidence, and Control in Golden Age Spain María Jordán

Aspects of Spanish culture and society in the Golden Age (c. 1550–1650) that demonstrate discontent, dissidence, and suggestions for reform. Emphasis on the intersection of historical and literary sources and the dynamic between popular and elite cultures.  WR, HU

* LAST 266a / SPAN 266a, Studies in Latin American Literature I Rolena Adorno

Origins of Latin American literary tradition from preconquest Aztec poetry to Baroque poetry of the seventeenth century. Study of works that helped define the future Latin America, from the Caribbean, to Mexico, and to the Andes of South America. Readings from the works of fifteenth century Texcocan poet, prince Nezahualcoyotl, through to seventeenth century Mexican Baroque poet, Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz.  L5, HU

LAST 267b / SPAN 267b, Studies in Latin American Literature II Roberto González Echevarría

An introduction to Latin American literature from the nineteenth century to the present. Works by Borges, García Márquez, Paz, Neruda, Cortázar, and others.  L5, HU

* LAST 289b / ER&M 289b / HSAR 464b, Twentieth-Century Latin American Art Monica Bravo

Survey of some of the major artistic figures, movements, and theorists associated with twentieth-century Latin American art. The historical scope begins with academic art and concludes with what might be more appropriately deemed the global contemporary. Consideration of whether there is such a thing as Latin American art.  HU

* LAST 293b / ER&M 293b, History and Culture of Cuba Albert Laguna

Investigation of the history and culture of Cuba from the colonial period to the present. Cultural production in the form of film, literature, and music discussed in relation to aesthetics and historical context. The course also engages with the history and culture of Cuban communities in the United States.   HU

* LAST 318a / ARCH 341a / GLBL 253a, Globalization Space Keller Easterling

Infrastructure space as a primary medium of change in global polity. Networks of trade, energy, communication, transportation, spatial products, finance, management, and labor, as well as new strains of political opportunity that reside within their spatial disposition. Case studies include free zones and automated ports around the world, satellite urbanism in South Asia, high-speed rail in Japan and the Middle East, agripoles in southern Spain, fiber optic submarine cable in East Africa, spatial products of tourism in North Korea, and management platforms of the International Organization for Standardization.  HU

* LAST 320a / AFAM 340a / AMST 303a / ER&M 320a / LITR 332a, Narratives of Blackness in Latino and Latin America Dixa Ramirez

Focus on the cultural and literary treatments of Afro-Latin American and Afro-Latina/o subjectivity in Spanish- and Portuguese-speaking Latin America and in the United States through the study of literature, historical first-hand accounts, film, and scholarship produced from the 16th century to the present. Themes include slave insurrections, the plantation system, piracy and buccaneering, the black roots of several Latin American musical genres, miscegenation, and the central role of sexuality in race-based social hierarchies.

* LAST 334a / ER&M 364a / HIST 334Ja, Ethnicity, Nationalism, and the Politics of Knowledge in Latin America Marcela Echeverri Munoz

Examination of ethnicity and nationalism in Latin America through the political lens of social knowledge. Comparative analysis of the evolution of symbolic, economic, and political perspectives on indigenous peoples, peasants, and people of African descent from the nineteenth century to the present. Consideration of the links between making ethnic categories in the social sciences and in literature and the rise of political mechanisms of participation and representation that have characterized the emergence of cultural politics.  WR, HURP

* LAST 344b / SPAN 344b, Narrative and Music in Hispanic Caribbean Culture Staff

The development of the narrative genre in Cuba, the Dominican Republic, and Puerto Rico from its origins in the nineteenth century to the present. Focus on how music is represented and incorporated into the discourse of Hispanic Caribbean novels and stories. Authors include Villaverde, Carpentier, Cabrera Infante, Nicolás Guillén, Ana Lydia Vega, and Luis Palés Matos. Open to students who have placed into L5 courses or who have successfully completed an L4 course in Spanish. Counts toward the Spanish major.  L5, HU

* LAST 348a / AFST 347a / EP&E 484a / GLBL 243a / PLSC 347a, Post-Conflict Politics David Simon

Consideration of a range of issues and challenges faced by countries emerging from domestic conflict. Focus on elements of peace-building—disarmament and demobilization, post-conflict elections, institution-building, and reconstruction—as well as modes of transitional justice and mechanisms for truth and reconciliation.  SO

* LAST 351a / SPAN 350a, Borges: Literature and Power Aníbal González Perez

An introduction to the work of Jorge Luis Borges, focusing on the relation between literature and power as portrayed in selected stories, essays, and poems. Topics include Borges and postmodernity; writing and ethics; and Borges's politics. Works include Ficciones, Otras inquisiciones, El aleph, El hacedor, El informe de Brodie, and Obra poética. Open to students who have placed into L5 courses or who have successfully completed an L4 course in Spanish. Counts toward the Spanish major.  L5, HU

LAST 361a / HIST 361a, History of Brazil Stuart Schwartz

Brazilian history from European contact to the reestablishment of civilian government in the 1990s. Focus on the multiethnic nature of Brazilian society, the formation of social and political patterns, and the relationship of people to the environment.  HU

* LAST 365a / SPAN 359a, The Asian Image in Contemporary Latin American Literature Aníbal González Perez

Exploration of the image of Asians and their diaspora in Latin American literature, from the 20th century until today. Topics include: cultural contributions of migrants to Latin America from China, Japan, Lebanon, and Syria; Asian-themed works by authors such as Rubén Darío, José Juan Tablada, and Leonardo Padura Fuentes; recent works by Asian diaspora authors in Latin America, such as Carlos Yushimito, José Watanabe, and Doris Moromisoto; and visual arts by painters such as Wifredo Lam. for students with solid command of spoken and written Spanish (L5).  L5, HU

* LAST 366b / HIST 364Jb, The Modern Caribbean Anne Eller

History of the greater Caribbean area as its citizens emerged from struggles against slavery and forged new projects for independence. The historical unity of the Caribbean explored across linguistic, imperial, and national lines. The region's central role in global events, its democratic struggles, and its diasporas and their influence.  WR, HU

* LAST 372a / ER&M 342a / HIST 372Ja, Revolutionary Change and Cold War in Latin America Gilbert Joseph

Analysis of revolutionary movements in Latin America against the backdrop of the Cold War. Critical examination of popular images and orthodox interpretations. An interdisciplinary study of the process of revolutionary change and cold war at the grassroots level.  WR, HU

* LAST 386a or b / GLBL 215a or b / MGRK 237a or b / PLSC 375a or b / SOCY 389a or b, Populism from Chavez to Trump Paris Aslanidis

Investigation of the nature of the populist phenomenon and its impact on politics, society, and the economy in various regions of the world. Conceptual and methodological analyses are supported by comparative assessments of various empirical instances, from populist politicians such as Hugo Chavez and Donald Trump, to populist social movements such as the Tea Party and Occupy Wall Street.  SO

* LAST 392b / LITR 296b / PORT 392b, Brazil's Modern Art Movement K. David Jackson

A study of Brazilian modernism in literature and the arts, centered on São Paulo's "Modern Art Week" of 1922 from the perspective of the European avant-gardes (cubism, futurism, surrealism). The Cannibal Manifesto and cultural independence from Europe; avant-garde practices in literature and the arts from the 1920s to the construction of Brasília. Reading knowledge of French and Portuguese helpful but not required.  WR, HUTr

* LAST 394a / LITR 294a / PORT 394a, World Cities and Narratives K. David Jackson

Study of world cities and selected narratives that describe, belong to, or represent them. Topics range from the rise of the urban novel in European capitals to the postcolonial fictional worlds of major Portuguese, Brazilian, and Spanish American cities. Conducted in English.  WR, HUTr

LAST 406a / AFST 420a / PLSC 430a, The Politics of Development Assistance David Simon

Study of development assistance, a dominant feature of the political economies of some of the world's poorest countries. The motivations and politics of aid from donors' perspectives; the political and economic impact of aid on developing countries. Proposals to make aid a more effective instrument of development.  SO

* LAST 416a / GLBL 189a / HLTH 325a, Methods and Ethics in Global Health Research Leslie Curry

Introduction to research methods in global health that recognize the influence of political, economic, social, and cultural factors. Quantitative, qualitative, and mixed-method approaches; ethical aspects of conducting research in resource-constrained settings; the process of obtaining human subjects' approval. Students develop proposals for short-term global health research projects conducted in resource-constrained settings.  SORP

* LAST 423b / EP&E 243b / GLBL 336b / PLSC 423b, Political Economy of Poverty Alleviation Ana De La O

Overview of classic and contemporary approaches to the question of why some countries have done better than others at reducing poverty. Emphasis on the role of politics.  SO

* LITR 360a / FILM 363a, Radical Cinemas of Latin America Staff

Introduction to Latin American cinema, with an emphasis on post–World War II films produced in Cuba, Argentina, Brazil, and Mexico. Examination of each film in its historical and aesthetic aspects, and in light of questions concerning national cinema and "third cinema." Examples from both pre-1945 and contemporary films. Conducted in English; knowledge of Spanish and Portuguese helpful but not required.  HU

PLSC 148b / HMRT 100b, Theories, Practices, and Politics of Human Rights Thania Sanchez and Nicholas Robinson

Introduction to core human-rights issues, ideas, practices, and controversies. The concept of human rights as a philosophical construct, a legal instrument, a political tool, an approach to economic and equity issues, a social agenda, and an international locus of contestation and legitimation. Required for students in the Multidisciplinary Academic Program in Human Rights.  SO

* PLSC 152a / EP&E 245a / EP&E 449, Global Firms and National Governments Joseph LaPalombara

Interactions between large-scale firms that make international investments and policy makers and government officials in the “host” countries. National and subnational officials who work to attract investments (or not) and who set policies regulating global firms and their investments. Focus on less-developed countries. Theories as to why firms “globalize”; case studies of controversies created by overseas corporate investments; the changing economic landscape associated with investments by countries such as China, Brazil, and India.  SO

PLSC 415b / SOCY 172b, Religion and Politics Sigrun Kahl

Challenges to the view of religion as an archaic force destined to dwindle away in a secularized society. A historical and comparative investigation of the relationship between religion and politics in Europe and the United States, with comparisons to the Muslim world.  SO

PLSC 439b / GLBL 263b, Challenges of Young Democracies Ana De La O

Challenges faced by young democracies, such as organizing free and fair elections, controlling government corruption, building an accountable system of governance, sustaining development, and curtailing conflict and violence. Factors that lead to the consolidation of democratic politics or to stagnation and a return to nondemocratic political systems.  SO

* PORT 300a, The Short Story: Major Authors K. David Jackson

Close reading of modern short stories by major authors writing in Portuguese, with an emphasis on Brazilian literature. Dominant critical and thematic currents; analysis of social forces. Prerequisite: PORT 140 or equivalent.  L5, HU

SPAN 246b, Introduction to the Cultures of Spain Leslie Harkema

Study of various aspects of Spanish culture, including its continuing relation to the societies of Latin America. Examination of Spanish politics, history, religions, art forms, music, and literatures, from ancient times to the present. Primary sources and critical studies are read in the original.  L5, HU

* SPAN 250a, Composition and Analysis Leslie Harkema

Advanced practice in both written and oral expression. Readings and discussion of a range of texts from the Spanish-speaking world (literature, contemporary journalism, historical documents, and film). Multiple short papers workshopped in class to improve students’ grasp of grammar and style. Practice in personal narrative, argumentation, interpretation and analysis, and translation.    L5, HU

Directed Reading and Senior Essay Courses

* LAST 471a, Directed Reading Staff

For students who wish to investigate an area of Latin American Studies not covered by regular offerings. The project must terminate with a term paper or its equivalent. No more than one term of credit may be earned. To apply for admission, a student should present a prospectus and a bibliography to the director of undergraduate studies no later than one day before the course selection period concludes. Written approval from the faculty member who will direct the student's reading and writing must accompany the prospectus.

* LAST 491a or b, The Senior Essay Staff

Preparation of a research paper about forty pages long under the direction of a faculty adviser, in either the fall or the spring term. Students write on subjects of their own choice. During the term before the essay is written, students plan the project in consultation with a qualified adviser or the director of undergraduate studies. The student must submit a suitable project outline and bibliography to the adviser and the director of undergraduate studies by the third week of the term. The outline should indicate the focus and scope of the essay topic, as well as the proposed research methodology. Permission may be given to write a two-term essay after consultation with an adviser and the director of undergraduate studies and after submission of a project statement. Only those who have begun to do advanced work in a given area are eligible. The requirements for the one-term senior essay apply to the two-term essay, except that the two-term essay should be substantially longer.