Modern Middle East Studies

Directors of undergraduate studies: Andrew March, 135 RKZ, 432-4178, andrew.march@yale.edu; Beatrice Gruendler, 317 HGS, 432-7522, beatrice.gruendler@yale.edu; www.yale.edu/macmillan/cmes

FACULTY ASSOCIATED WITH THE PROGRAM OF MODERN MIDDLE EAST STUDIES

Professors Abbas Amanat (History), Gerhard Böwering (Religious Studies), John Darnell (Near Eastern Languages & Civilizations), Stephen Davis (Religious Studies), Benjamin Foster (Near Eastern Languages & Civilizations), Steven Fraade (Religious Studies), Eckart Frahm (Near Eastern Languages & Civilizations), Frank Griffel (Religious Studies), Beatrice Gruendler (Near Eastern Languages & Civilizations), Dimitri Gutas (Near Eastern Languages & Civilizations), Christine Hayes (Religious Studies), Marcia Inhorn (Anthropology), Anthony Kronman (Law School), Bentley Layton (Religious Studies), Joseph Manning (Classics, History), Ivan Marcus (History), Alan Mikhail (History), Robert Nelson (History of Art), W. Michael Reisman (Law School), Maurice Samuels (French), Lamin Sanneh (Divinity School), Yuval Sinai (Religious Studies, Law School) (Visiting), Harvey Weiss (Near Eastern Languages & Civilizations)

Associate Professors Kaveh Khoshnood (Public Health), Ellen Lust (Political Science), Colleen Manassa (Near Eastern Languages & Civilizations), Andrew March (Political Science), Ahmed Mobarak (School of Management), Kishwar Rizvi (History of Art)

Assistant Professors Narges Erami (Anthropology), Zareena Grewal (American Studies), Adria Lawrence (Political Science), Mark Lazenby (School of Nursing), Eliyahu Stern (Religious Studies), Jonathan Wyrtzen (Sociology)

Senior Lecturers Geetanjali Singh Chanda (Women's, Gender, & Sexuality Studies), Tolga Koker (Economics)

Lecturers Adel Allouche (History), Karla Britton (Architecture), Karen Foster (History of Art), Konstantina Maragkou (History), Kathryn Slanski (Near Eastern Languages & Civilizations)

Senior Lector II Ayala Dvoretzky

Senior Lectors Sarab al-Ani, Muhammad Aziz, Aaron Butts, Moulay Youness Elbousty, Shiri Goren, Shady Nasser, Dina Roginsky, Farkhondeh Shayesteh

Lector Etem Erol

The Modern Middle East Studies major focuses on the culture, history, religion, politics, and society of the modern Middle East in its full geographical breadth, using any of its four major languages, Arabic, Hebrew, Persian, and Turkish. Courses are selected from the Department of Near Eastern Languages and Civilizations and from other departments in the humanities and social sciences, including Anthropology, History, History of Art, Judaic Studies, Political Science, and Religious Studies. The Modern Middle East Studies major gives students the language skills necessary to understand complex issues of the Middle East and serves as excellent preparation for graduate study or for business and professional careers in which an understanding of that region is essential.

Prerequisites There are no prerequisites, but prospective majors should keep the language requirement in mind while planning their course schedules (see below).

Requirements of the major Twelve term courses are required for the major, including three foundational courses, one each in modern thought, classical thought, and the modern Middle East. Six electives on the modern Middle East examine culture and thought, history, religion, politics, and society. Elective courses must be spread geographically and substantively; they must focus on at least two different subregions and originate in at least two different departments. The proposed course of study requires the approval of the director of undergraduate studies.

Language requirement All students are required to complete two courses at the L5 level in a Middle Eastern language. The two courses may be applied toward the twelve-course major requirement. Typical courses include ARBC 150, 151, and PERS 150.

Senior requirement Students in the major undertake a one- or two-term senior essay that involves use of materials in one or more modern Middle Eastern languages. The student selects a faculty adviser with competence in an appropriate language. A prospectus and outline signed by the adviser must be submitted to the director of undergraduate studies by the end of the fourth week of classes in either term of the senior year. Senior essays are graded by the adviser and a second reader. See the course descriptions of the senior essay courses (MMES 491, 492, 493) for additional information. Alternatively, majors may take an additional seminar and write an essay in that course to fulfill the senior requirement.

REQUIREMENTS OF THE MAJOR

Prerequisites None

Number of courses 12 term courses

Distribution of courses 3 foundational courses, 1 each in modern thought, classical thought, and the modern Middle East; 6 electives spread geographically and substantively, focusing on at least 2 subregions and from at least 2 depts

Language requirement 2 courses at L5 level in a Middle Eastern lang

Senior requirement Senior essay (MMES 491 or MMES 492, 493) or essay written in an addtl sem

Foundational Courses

Modern Thought

*MMES 105a / AFST 372a / SOCY 372aG, Comparative Nationalism in North Africa and the Middle East Jonathan Wyrtzen

The rise of nationalism in the Maghreb (or Arab West) and Mashriq (or Arab East). Introduction to major debates about nationalism; the influence of transnational (pan-Islamic and pan-Arab) ideologies, ethnicity, gender, and religion. Case studies include Egypt, Iraq, Israel, Palestine, Jordan, Saudi Arabia, the Gulf monarchies, Morocco, Western Sahara, Algeria, and Berber and Kurdish movements.  SO
T 2.30–4.20 Seminar

Classical Thought

MMES 171a / HIST 360a / NELC 402a, The Islamic Near East from Muhammad to the Mongol Invasion Adel Allouche

The shaping of society and polity from the rise of Islam to the Mongol conquest of Baghdad in 1258. The origins of Islamic society; conquests and social and political assimilation under the Umayyads and Abbasids; the changing nature of political legitimacy and sovereignty under the caliphate; provincial decentralization and new sources of social and religious power.  HU
TTh 11.35–12.50 Lecture

MMES 192a / RLST 170a, The Religion of Islam Gerhard Böwering

The rise of Islam in Arabia; Muhammad and the Qur'an; Muslim tradition and religious law; crucial issues of Islamic philosophy and theology; basic beliefs and practices of the Muslim community; Sufism and Shi'ism; religious institutions and modern trends; fundamentalism and violence; freedom and democracy.  HU
TTh 2.30–3.45 Lecture

MMES 201a / HUMS 420a / LITR 178a / NELC 156a, Classics of the Arabic-Islamic World Beatrice Gruendler

Survey of the literary tradition of the Arabic-Islamic world (West Asia, North Africa, and Muslim Spain), a textual conversation among diverse authors from late antiquity to the Mamluk period. Prose and poetry from the Qur'an to the Arabian Nights; attention to the interdependence of the works and their cultural setting, the agendas authors pursued, and the characters they portrayed.  HU  Tr
TTh 1.00–2.15 Lecture

MMES 389b / PLSC 329bG / RLST 197bG, Islamic Law and Ethics Andrew March

Introduction to key theoretical and practical dimensions of Islamic jurisprudence. Theological problems in Islamic law; topics in positive Islamic legal doctrine; historical survey of public and constitutional law in Islam; modern debates about the role of Islamic law in independent sovereign states. Case studies include Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Iran, and Pakistan.  SORP
TTh 1.30–2.20, 1 HTBA Lecture

*MMES 391a / RLST 287aG, Islamic Theology and Philosophy Frank Griffel

Historical survey of major themes in Muslim theology and philosophy, from teachings of the Qur'an to contemporary Muslim thought. The systematic character of Muslim thought and of the arguments given by thinkers; reason vs. revelation; the emergence of Sunnism and Shi'ism; the reaction of Muslim theology (from 1800) to the challenges of the West.  HU
TTh 10.30–11.20, 1 HTBA Lecture

*MMES 490a / NELC 490aG, Introduction to Arabic and Islamic Studies Dimitri Gutas

Comprehensive survey of subjects treated in Arabic and Islamic studies, with representative readings from each. Methods and techniques of scholarship in the field; emphasis on acquiring familiarity with bibliographical and other research tools. Enrollment limited to senior majors in Near Eastern Languages and Civilizations, except by permission of instructor.
W 2.30–4.20 Seminar

The Modern Middle East

MMES 102a / HUMS 440a / NELC 102a, Introduction to the Middle East Benjamin Foster

Introduction to the history and cultures of the Middle East from the rise of Islam to the present, including the Arab world, Iran, Turkey, and Israel. Emphasis on factors important for understanding the Middle East today.  HU
MW 9.00–10.15, 1 HTBA Lecture

*MMES 126a / ARCH 271a / HSAR 266a / HUMS 450a / SAST 266a, Introduction to Islamic Architecture Kishwar Rizvi

Introduction to the architecture of the Islamic world from the seventh century to the present, encompassing regions of Asia, North Africa, and Europe. A variety of sources and media, from architecture to urbanism and from travelogues to paintings, are used in an attempt to understand the diversity and richness of Islamic architecture. Field trip to the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York.  HU
MW 10.30–11.20, 1 HTBA Lecture

MMES 196a / AFST 280a / SOCY 135a, Islamic Society, Culture, and Politics Jonathan Wyrtzen

The historical development of the global Muslim community, from its origins in seventh-century Arabia through its spread over subsequent centuries into the Middle East, Africa, Central, South, and Southeast Asia, and the West. The tremendous variation and complexity expressed in society, culture, and politics across the Islamic world; Islam as a unifying factor on critical issues such as religious practice, political structure and activism, gender, and cultural expression.  SO
TTh 10.30–11.20, 1 HTBA Lecture

MMES 411a / ANTH 221aG, Muslim Societies Narges Erami

Introduction to ethnographic and historical works on Muslim societies in the Middle East. Focus on relationships between sociocultural practices and experiences of living in the region. Themes include religion, nationalism, colonialism, Orientalism, kinship, media, informal networks, subjectivity, popular culture, the city, law, education, and gender and sexuality.  SO
MW 11.35–12.25, 1 HTBA Lecture

*MMES 480a / PLSC 374aG, Comparative Politics of the Middle East Ellen Lust

Overview of current scholarship on Middle East politics, with attention to ways in which it differs from scholarship based on other regions and to its place in the broader discipline of comparative politics. The relationship between religion and politics; participation in elections, civil society, and political activism; the role of the military; labor and other actors.  SO
T 9.25–11.15 Seminar

MMES 481b / PLSC 394b, Introduction to Middle East Politics Ellen Lust

An overview of politics in the Middle East and North Africa, with particular attention to state formation, Islam, oil, and the Arab-Israeli conflict as these influence regime type, political stability, and economic development.  SO
TTh 10.30–11.20, 1 HTBA Lecture

Elective Courses

*MMES 050b / RLST 050b, Islam and Modernity Frank Griffel

Introduction to contemporary Islam and to the notion of modernity. Focus on whether Islam excludes modernity and a democratic society and how Muslims see the relationship among Islam, modernity, and democracy. Enrollment limited to freshmen. Preregistration required; see under Freshman Seminar Program.  HU
TTh 2.30–3.45 Seminar

*MMES 111b / ANTH 360bG, Representing Iran Narges Erami

Major themes in Iranian history and culture used as a critical framework for understanding challenges that face Iran today. Examination of Western production of knowledge about Iran. Topics include local and oral history, revolutions, Islam and secularism, democracy and theocracy, and the role of cinema.  SO
W 2.30–4.20 Seminar

MMES 144b / HIST 346b, The Making of Modern Iran Abbas Amanat

The political, socioreligious, and cultural history of modern Iran from the Shi'ite revolution and the rise of the Safavid Empire to the present. Discussion of Shi'ism and the state, relations with neighboring countries (the Ottoman Empire and India), Russia and Britain in Qajar Iran, the Babi-Baha'i religion, the constitutional revolution, the Pahlavi dynasty, oil, nationalism and relations with the United States, the causes and the consequences of the Islamic revolution, and Iran in the contemporary Middle East.  HU
TTh 2.30–3.20, 1 HTBA Lecture

MMES 148b / HIST 345bG / JDST 265bG / RLST 202bG, Jews in Muslim Lands from the Seventh to the Sixteenth Centuries Ivan Marcus

Jewish culture and society in Muslim lands from the Prophet Muhammad to Suleiman the Magnificent. Topics include Islam and Judaism; Jerusalem as a holy site; rabbinic leadership and literature in Baghdad; Jewish courtiers, poets, and philosophers in Muslim Spain; and the Jews in the Ottoman Empire.  HURP
TTh 11.35–12.50 Lecture

MMES 149a / ER&M 219a / HIST 219aG / JDST 200aG / RLST 148aG, History of the Jews and Their Diasporas to Early Modern Times Ivan Marcus

A broad introduction to the history of the Jews from biblical beginnings until the European Reformation and the Ottoman Empire. Focus on the formative period of classical rabbinic Judaism and on the symbiotic relationships among Jews, Christians, and Muslims. Jewish society and culture in its biblical, rabbinic, and medieval settings. Counts toward either European or non-Western distributional credit within the History major, upon application to the director of undergraduate studies.  HURP
TTh 11.35–12.50 Lecture

*MMES 155a / HEBR 160aG / JDST 360a, Hebrew in a Changing World Dina Roginsky

Sociological aspects of Modern Hebrew as the language is used in Israel to construct norms, expectations, and daily experiences. Readings and class discussions address changes in Israeli society and culture at large. Prerequisite: HEBR 140.  L5
TTh 1.00–2.15 Lecture

MMES 156b / HEBR 161b / JDST 407b, Israeli Popular Music Dina Roginsky

Changes in the development of popular music in Israel explored as representations of changing Israeli society and culture. The interaction of music and cultural identity; modern popular music and social conventions; songs of commemoration and heroism; popular representation of the Holocaust; Mizrahi and Arab music; feminism, sexuality, and gender; class and musical consumption; criticism, protest, and globalization. Conducted in Hebrew. Prerequisite: HEBR 140 or equivalent.  L5
MW 11.35–12.50 Lecture

*MMES 157a / JDST 306a / NELC 157aG, Israeli Narratives Shiri Goren

Close reading of major Israeli novels in translation with attention to how their themes and forms relate to the Israeli condition. Theories of war and peace, migration, nationalism, and gender. Authors include Yehoshua, Grossman, Matalon, Castel-Bloom, and Kashua. No knowledge of Hebrew required.  HU  Tr
W 1.30–3.20 Seminar

*MMES 159a / HEBR 159aG / JDST 409a, Conversational Hebrew: Israeli Media Shiri Goren

An advanced Hebrew course for students interested in practicing and enhancing conversational skills. Focus on listening comprehension and on various forms of discussion, including practical situations, online interactions, and content analysis. Prerequisite: HEBR 140 or permission of instructor.  L5RP
TTh 11.35–12.50 Seminar

MMES 160b / JDST 323b / NELC 155b, State and Society in Israel Dina Roginsky

The interplay between the state and society in Israel. Current Israeli discourse on controversial issues such as civil rights in a Jewish-democratic state, Jewish-Arab relations, and right and left politics. Issues of orthodoxy, military service, globalization, and multiculturalism in Israel. Sociopolitical changes that have taken place in Israel since the establishment of the state in 1948 and that have led to the reshaping of Israeli Zionist ideology.  HU
TTh 11.35–12.50 Lecture

*MMES 161b / HEBR 162bG / JDST 319b, Israel in Ideology and Practice Dina Roginsky

The social history of modern Israel from the inception of Zionism in the late nineteenth century to the present, with emphasis on the ideological processes that led to the foundation of the state in 1948. Topics include political dynamics, the complicated relashionship between state and religion, Jewish-Arab relations, and contemporary Israeli society. Prerequisite: HEBR 140 or equivalent.  L5RP
TTh 2.30–3.45 Seminar

*MMES 172b / HIST 384Jb / NELC 403b, The Middle East between Crusaders and Mongols Adel Allouche

The impact of the Crusades and the Mongol conquests on the Islamic Middle East. Political, social, and economic changes in the region from the eleventh century to the middle of the fourteenth. Emphasis on the rise of new dynasties as a result of changes in the ethnic mosaic of the Middle East.  WR, HU
T 1.30–3.20 Seminar

*MMES 173b / HIST 398Jb / NELC 404b, Mamluk Egypt Adel Allouche

A study of the Mamluks, manumitted slaves initially imported to Egypt for military service who established their own rule over Egypt and Syria (1250–1517). Focus on the structure and workings of the Mamluk state. Military, political, economic, and social factors that contributed to the grandeur and, later, the decline of the Mamluk period in Egypt and its conquest by the Ottoman Turks.  WR, HU
Th 1.30–3.20 Seminar

*MMES 181a / AFST 389a / GLBL 186a / PLSC 389a, Middle East Exceptionalism Adria Lawrence

The Middle East and North Africa in comparative perspective. Evaluation of claims that the region's states are exceptionally violent, authoritarian, or religious. Themes include gender, Islam, nation and state formation, oil wealth, terrorism, and war.  SO
T 1.30–3.20 Seminar

*MMES 184a / PLSC 190a, Religion, Middle East Politics, and Conflict Resolution Sallama Shaker

Analysis of major issues affecting twenty-first-century politics in the Middle East. The relationships between culture, identity, religion, and socioeconomic challenges. Faith-based diplomacy as a means of reaching out to warring groups; Islamic principles and values that support nonviolence and peace building. Focus on case studies of minority groups such as Kurds and Shiites.  SO
T 3.30–5.20 Seminar

*MMES 189a / PLSC 455a, Religion, Empowerment, and the Role of Women in Nationalist Movements Sallama Shaker

Challenges to Western narratives about women's passive role in Middle Eastern and North African societies. Exploration of women's engagement in nationalist movements and political processes; women's responses to war, occupation, and conflicts; the role of religion and culture in influencing gender issues.  SO
Th 3.30–5.20 Seminar

MMES 193b / HIST 351b / RLST 155bG, The Golden Age of Islam Gerhard Böwering

The development of Islamic civilization in the Middle East, North Africa, Spain, Iran, and India from Muhammad through the Mongol invasions to the rise of the Ottoman, Safavid, and Mughal empires (600–1500 C.E.). Emphasis on the intellectual and religious history of Islam in the age of the caliphates and during the rule of regional dynasties.  HU
TTh 2.30–3.45 Lecture

MMES 197a / JDST 332a / RLST 193a, Zionism Eliyahu Stern

Introduction to the core ideas of the Zionist movement from the mid-nineteenth century to the mid-twentieth. Focus on internal Jewish debates and criticism of the movement by European and Middle Eastern intellectuals. Social, political, cultural, and messianic ideological strands within the movement and their interpretations of various historical experiences and ideas located in the Jewish tradition.  HU
MW 1.00–2.15, 1 HTBA Lecture

*MMES 282b / AFST 373b / GLBL 362b / SOCY 339bG, Imperialism, Insurgency, and State Building in the Middle East and North Africa Jonathan Wyrtzen

The historical evolution of political order from Morocco to Central Asia in the past two centuries. Focus on relationships between imperialism, insurgency, and state building. Ottoman, European, and nationalist strategies for state building; modes of local resistance; recent transnational developments; American counterinsurgency and nation-building initiatives in the region.  SO
Th 9.25–11.15 Seminar

*MMES 291b / AFST 348b / SOCY 232bG, Islamic Social Movements Jonathan Wyrtzen

Social movement and network theory used to analyze the emergence and evolution of Islamic movements from the early twentieth century to the present. Organization, mobilization, and framing of political, nonpolitical, militant, and nonmilitant movements; transnational dimensions of Islamic activism. Case studies include the Muslim Brotherhood, Hamas, Hizbollah, Al-Qaeda, Al-Adl wa-Ihsann, and Tablighi Jama'at.  SO
Th 1.30–3.20 Seminar

*MMES 303b / AMST 343b / ER&M 303b, Muslim Diasporas in America Zareena Grewal

Exploration of the meanings and attachments that connect Muslims in the U.S. to homelands in the Muslim world. How to define and apply the concept of diaspora to an ever-broadening set of Muslim populations dispersed in space, including immigrants, expatriates, refugees, guest workers, exiles, and religious seekers. Analysis of newspaper articles, political comics, memoirs, fiction, ethnographies, political essays, sociological surveys, and documentary films.  SO
T 1.30–3.20 Seminar

*MMES 311b / ER&M 327b / WGSS 327b, Constructing the Self: From Autobiography to Facebook Geetanjali Singh Chanda

Autobiography in its evolving form as literary genre, historical archive, and individual and community narrative in a changing geographical context. Women's life stories from Afghanistan, China, Cambodia, Indonesia, India, Iran, Egypt, Jordan, and Vietnam illustrate the dialectic relationship between the global and the local. What the reading and writing of autobiographies reveal about oneself and one's place in society; autobiography as a horizontal community formation.  WR, HU
T 1.30–3.20 Seminar

*MMES 342a / HIST 232Ja / HUMS 443a / JDST 270a / RLST 201a, Medieval Jews, Christians, and Muslims Imagining Each Other Ivan Marcus

How members of Jewish, Christian, and Muslim communities thought of and interacted with members of the other two cultures during the Middle Ages. Cultural grids and expectations each imposed on the other; the rhetoric of otherness—humans or devils, purity or impurity, and animal imagery; and models of religious community and power in dealing with the other when confronted with cultural differences. Counts toward either European or Middle Eastern distributional credit within the History major, upon application to the director of undergraduate studies.  WR, HURP
T 1.30–3.20 Seminar

*MMES 344a / HIST 343JaG / NELC 316a / RLST 313aG, Iran's Prophets of Protest Abbas Amanat

Iranian messianic movements from ancient to modern. Emphasis on continuity in patterns of dissent, social impact and challenges to religious and political establishments, and influences on the Islamic world and beyond. Zoroastrian apocalyptic origins, Manichean moral community and Mazdakite protocommunism, emergence of the Mahdi and Shi'i movements from Isma'ilis to Safavids, "Universal Peace" from Mughal India to Babi-Baha'i modernity, and messianic trends from the Islamic Revolution to contemporary Iran.  HU
M 3.30–5.20 Seminar

*MMES 345a / HIST 385Ja, The Middle East and the West: A Cultural Encounter Abbas Amanat

The Orient and the Occident as cultural constructs; encounters with Islam and the Middle East since the eighteenth century; evolving Muslim attitudes toward the West; orientalism and representations of the Middle East in Western literature and media; images of the United States; clash or dialogue of civilizations.  WR, HU
W 3.30–5.20 Seminar

*MMES 350b / JDST 330bG / RLST 330bG, Multiculturalism and Jewish Law in Israel Yuval Sinai

Introduction to the history of pluralism and multicultural models in the Jewish legal tradition. The role of Jewish law in contemporary Israeli society; tensions between Jewish law and secular law; possible reconciliation of these tensions in light of both Jewish legal tradition and the realities of the modern Jewish and democratic state of Israel.  HU
MW 2.30–3.45 Seminar

*MMES 351a / JDST 331aG / RLST 331aG, Jewish Law in the State of Israel Yuval Sinai

A historical study of Jewish law as the basis for modern Israeli law. Examination of cases in Israeli secular civil courts and in rabbinical courts. Attention to the wide range of subjects in which Jewish law has been utilized: public law, war and peace, criminal law, torts and biomedical law, morality, employment, judicial processes of procedure and evidence, and civil rights.  HU
MW 2.30–3.45 Seminar

*MMES 465a or b / ARBC 165aG and bG, Arabic Seminar Dimitri Gutas [F] and Beatrice Gruendler [Sp]

Study and interpretation of classical Arabic texts for advanced students. Prerequisite: ARBC 146, 151, or permission of instructor. May be repeated for credit.  L5
T 3.30–5.20 Seminar

Independent Directed Study

*MMES 471a and MMES 472b, Independent Directed Study Andrew March

Independent research or directed reading under the direction of a faculty member in the program on a special topic in Modern Middle East Studies not substantially covered by an existing undergraduate or graduate course. A proposal describing the nature of the program and the readings to be covered must be signed by the adviser and submitted to the director of undergraduate studies by the end of the second week of classes. The student should meet with the adviser regularly, typically for an hour a week, and write one term essay or several short essays.
HTBA HTBA; 1 HTBA 1 HTBA Individual Study

Senior Essay Courses

*MMES 491a or b, Senior Essay Andrew March

The one-term senior essay is a research paper of at least thirty pages prepared under the supervision of a faculty member in accordance with the following schedule: (1) by the end of the second week of classes of the term, students meet with advisers to discuss the essay's topic, approach, sources, and bibliography; (2) by the end of the fourth week of classes a prospectus with outline, including an annotated bibliography of materials in one or more modern Middle Eastern languages and of secondary sources, is signed by the adviser and submitted to the director of undergraduate studies. The prospectus should indicate the formal title, scope, and focus of the essay, as well as the proposed research method, including detailed indications of the nature and extent of materials in a modern Middle Eastern language that will be used; (3) at the end of the tenth week of classes, a rough draft of the complete essay is submitted to the adviser; (4) by 4 p.m. on the last day of reading period, two copies of the finished paper must be submitted to the MMES registrar, 115 Prospect St., room 344. A late essay will receive a lower grade. Senior essays are graded by faculty associated with the Modern Middle East Studies program unless, for exceptional reasons, different arrangements for another reader have been made in advance with the director of undergraduate studies and the faculty adviser.
HTBA HTBA [F]; HTBA [Sp] Senior Essay

MMES 492a and MMES 493b, The Yearlong Senior Essay Andrew March

The yearlong senior essay is a research paper of at least sixty pages prepared under the supervision of a faculty member in accordance with the following schedule: (1) by the end of the second week of classes of the first term, students meet with advisers to discuss the essay's topic, approach, sources, and bibliography; (2) by the end of the fourth week of classes a prospectus with outline, including an annotated bibliography of materials in one or more modern Middle Eastern languages and of secondary sources, is signed by the adviser and submitted to the director of undergraduate studies. The prospectus should indicate the formal title, scope, and focus of the essay, as well as the proposed research method, including detailed indications of the nature and extent of materials in a modern Middle Eastern language that will be used; (3) at the end of February, a rough draft of the complete essay is submitted to the adviser; (4) by 4 p.m. on the last day of reading period in the spring term, two copies of the finished paper must be submitted to the MMES registrar, 115 Prospect St., room 344. A late essay will receive a lower grade. Senior essays are graded by faculty associated with the Modern Middle East Studies program unless, for exceptional reasons, different arrangements for another reader have been made in advance with the director of undergraduate studies and the faculty adviser. Credit for MMES 492 only on completion of MMES 493.
HTBA HTBA Senior Essay