Key to Course Listings

AFAM Course subjects are listed by three- or four-letter abbreviations in capitals. See the complete list of Subject Abbreviations.
MATH 112a or b The letters “a” and “b” after a course number denote fall- and spring-term courses, respectively. A course designated “a or b” is the same course given in both terms.
Staff Multiple course instructors are commonly listed as “Staff.” Refer to Yale Course Search (Http:// for individual section instructors.
Prerequisite: MATH 112 Prerequisites and recommendations are listed at the end of the course description.
L5, HU Foreign language courses are designated L1 (first term of language study), L2 (second term), L3 (third term), L4 (fourth term), or L5 (beyond the fourth term). Other distributional designations are QR, WR, HU, SC, and SO, representing quantitative reasoning, writing, humanities and arts, science, and social science, respectively. See “Distributional Requirements” under “Requirements for the B.A. or B.S. Degree” ( in the Academic Regulations.
½ Course cr Most courses earn one course credit per term; variations are noted.
RP A course designated “RP” meets during the reading period. See “Reading Period and Final Examination Period” ( in the Academic Regulations.
[ASTR 320] Courses in brackets are not offered during the current year but are expected to be given in the succeeding academic year.
*HIST 012 All seminars are starred and enrollment is limited. The instructor’s permission may be required.
ITAL 310/LITR 183 A course with multiple titles, i.e., with two or more departments in the title line, counts toward the major in each department where it appears.
TR The abbreviation “TR” denotes a literature course with readings in translation.
English: Pre-1900 Lit Courses with department-specific designations are applied toward the requirements of certain majors. See the program descriptions of the relevant majors.
HIST 130Jb, MCDB 201Lb A capital J or L following the course number denotes a History departmental seminar or a science laboratory, respectively.
Cognitive Science Courses: ECON 159 Related courses appear in departments other than their own (e.g., ECON 159 might be listed under Cognitive Science). Such courses may count toward the major of the relating department.