Political Science

Director of undergraduate studies: David Simon, 115 Prospect St., 432-5236, david.simon@yale.edu; politicalscience.yale.edu/academics/about-undergraduate-program

FACULTY OF THE DEPARTMENT OF POLITICAL SCIENCE

Professors Bruce Ackerman, Akhil Amar, Seyla Benhabib, Paul Bracken, David Cameron, Benjamin Cashore, Bryan Garsten, Alan Gerber, Jacob Hacker, Oona Hathaway, Jolyon Howorth (Visiting), Gregory Huber, Stathis Kalyvas, Joseph LaPalombara (Emeritus), David Mayhew (Emeritus), Thomas Pogge, Douglas Rae, John Roemer, Susan Rose-Ackerman, Frances Rosenbluth, Bruce Russett (Emeritus), James Scott, Ian Shapiro, Stephen Skowronek, Steven Smith, Susan Stokes, Peter Swenson, John Wargo, Ebonya Washington, Steven Wilkinson (Chair), Elisabeth Wood

Associate Professors Ana De La O, Alexandre Debs, Hélène Landemore, Adria Lawrence, Jason Lyall, Karuna Mantena, Andrew March, Nuno Monteiro, Milan Svolik, Vesla Weaver

Assistant Professors Peter Aronow, Kate Baldwin, Deborah Beim, Alexander Coppock, Allan Dafoe, John Henderson, Eitan Hersh, Kelly Rader, Thania Sanchez

Lecturers Paris Aslanidis, Charles Blow, Steven Calabresi, Michael Fotos, Bernt Hagtvet, Cynthia Horan, Jolyon Howorth, Sigrun Kahl, Matthew Kocher, Volodymyr Kulyk, Stephen Latham, Christopher Lebron, David Leslie, Malte Lierl, Matthew Mahler, Mark Mellman, Marc Opper, Alexander Rosas, Andrew Sabl, Yuriy Sergeyev, Walter Shapiro, David Simon, Derek Slap, James Sleeper, Mark Somos, Jason Stearns, John Stoehr, Robert Trager, Bonnie Weir, Graeme Wood

Advising The director of undergraduate studies and other members of the department can provide advice about departmental requirements, options within the major, requirements of two majors, study abroad, and other matters related to the major. Majors must secure written approval of their course selections each term from the director of undergraduate studies. All subsequent changes in a student's major program must also be approved. Students are also encouraged to seek advice from other departmental faculty members who are knowledgeable about their fields of interest. Information on faculty interests can be found on the departmental Web site.

The standard program Twelve term courses in political science are required. Students must take at least two courses in each of any three of the department's five fields—international relations, American government, political philosophy, analytical political theory, and comparative government. Students expecting to major in Political Science should take one or more introductory-level courses in the department early in their college careers. Introductory courses count toward the overall course requirement and toward the departmental fields requirement.

Students are encouraged to take courses related to political science that are offered by other departments. Students who elect the standard program may petition to count up to two such courses toward the major. Students may routinely count college seminars taught by members of the Political Science faculty toward the major, and they may petition to count one college seminar taught by an instructor outside the department. Students who have completed Directed Studies may, with the approval of the director of undergraduate studies, count one term of DRST 005, 006 toward the major.

Senior requirement Students majoring in Political Science are required to take at least two seminars taught by members of the Political Science department, including at least one during the senior year. Seniors in the major must also complete a senior essay, as described under "Senior essay" below. The essay can be written either in one term or over both terms of the senior year. In order to graduate from Yale College, a student majoring in Political Science must achieve a passing grade on the senior essay.

Credit/D/Fail Students may count up to two lecture courses taken Credit/D/Fail toward the major which will count as non-A grades for purposes of calculating distinction. Seminars taken Credit/D/F will not count toward the major requirements, but will count as non-A grades for purposes of calculating distinction.

Seminar preregistration Each term, the department provides all declared Political Science majors the opportunity to apply for preregistration to its seminars. Instructors of seminars may preregister up to twelve students per course, or up to eight students for multiple-titled courses. The maximum enrollment for each seminar is eighteen. Students may be preregistered in up to two seminars per term. In order to participate in fall-term seminar preregistration, students must be declared Political Science majors by July 1, and an initial notice is sent to all majors by the end of July. In order to participate in spring-term preregistration, students must be declared Political Science majors by November 1, and the initial notice is sent by the end of November.

Senior essay The senior essay provides an appropriate intellectual culmination to the student's work in the major and in Yale College. The essay should ordinarily be written on a topic in an area in which the student has previously done course work. It should rest on extensive research that is appropriate to the subject matter. Essays are expected to be in the range of twenty-five to thirty double-spaced pages. At the beginning of the term in which the essay is written, students must have their senior essay topic approved by a faculty member who has agreed to advise them. Each student is expected to consult regularly with the seminar instructor or adviser and take the initiative in developing a plan of research, scheduling regular meetings, and submitting preliminary drafts for review.

One-term essays may be written either in a seminar or, with the approval of an adviser and the director of undergraduate studies, in PLSC 480. Senior essays written in the fall term are due on December 9, 2016. Spring-term and yearlong essays are due on April 25, 2017. More extensive information about the senior essay can be found on the departmental Web site.

The yearlong senior essay Students who wish to undertake a more extensive research project than is possible in a single term may fulfill the senior essay requirement by enrolling in the yearlong course sequence PLSC 490 and 491. PLSC 490 also counts toward the senior seminar requirement. In the fall term, students writing a yearlong senior essay develop a research prospectus for the essay and begin their research under the supervision of a member of the faculty who specializes in the area being investigated. In the spring term, students complete the essay. Yearlong senior essays are expected to be substantially longer than a regular term paper. While there is no fixed length, they are normally at least fifty pages long.

Majors who wish to enroll in the yearlong senior essay must apply for admission in the spring of their junior year. The deadline for the Class of 2018 is April 10, 2017. By that date, students should submit to the office of the director of undergraduate studies: (1) the yearlong senior essay prospectus form signed by a faculty adviser who has agreed to supervise the student during both terms of the senior year; and (2) a one-to-two-page statement describing the research project. It is expected that no more than fifteen students will be admitted each year.

The standard major with an interdisciplinary concentration Students majoring in Political Science may choose an interdisciplinary concentration, which allows them to identify and pursue an area of study that crosses conventional disciplinary and departmental boundaries. Examples of interdisciplinary concentrations are urban studies, health politics and policy, political economy, political psychology, and global affairs. Students choosing such a concentration are required to take twelve term courses toward the major. At least seven courses must be in the field of concentration. Of the courses counting toward the major outside of the field of concentration, at least two courses must be taken in each of any two of the department's five fields. As many as three courses taken in other departments may be counted toward the major, with the permission of the director of undergraduate studies. The senior requirement is the same as for the standard program, with the proviso that the essay must be written on a subject that falls within the field of concentration.

Students wishing to pursue the Political Science major with an interdisciplinary concentration must submit an application and meet with the director of undergraduate studies to discuss their proposed program of study. The application is due prior to the beginning of the November recess in the student's final year of enrollment.

The intensive major The intensive major gives students an opportunity to undertake more extensive course work and research for the senior essay than is possible in the standard major. Requirements for the intensive major are identical to those for the nonintensive major (standard program or interdisciplinary concentration), with the following exceptions: (1) in the spring term of the junior year, intensive majors take PLSC 474 in preparation for writing a yearlong senior essay; (2) in the senior year, intensive majors fulfill the senior essay requirement by enrolling in the yearlong course sequence PLSC 490 and PLSC 493 (PLSC 490 also counts toward the senior seminar requirement); (3) a total of fifteen term courses is required.

Juniors wishing to pursue an intensive major must apply to the director of undergraduate studies by November 11, 2016. The application should contain: (1) the intensive major application form signed by a faculty adviser who has agreed to supervise the student for the final three terms of enrollment; (2) a plan of study that identifies the political science courses that will be taken in those three terms; and (3) a one-to-two-page description of the proposed senior essay.

Study abroad Students who study in a Junior Term Abroad program or at another university during the summer may, with the approval of the director of undergraduate studies, count up to two courses toward the major. Students who study in a Junior Year Abroad program may, with the approval of the director of undergraduate studies, count up to four courses toward the major. Students may also petition to have non-Yale courses that were not taught in political science departments count toward the major. Pending approval of the director of undergraduate studies, these courses will count toward the maximum number of substitutions.

Combined B.A./M.A. degree program Exceptionally able and well-prepared students may complete a course of study leading to the simultaneous award of the B.A. and M.A. degrees after eight terms of enrollment. See "Simultaneous Award of the Bachelor's and Master's Degrees" under Special Arrangements in the Academic Regulations. Interested students should consult the director of undergraduate studies prior to the sixth term of enrollment for specific requirements in Political Science.

REQUIREMENTS OF THE MAJOR

B.A. DEGREE, STANDARD PROGRAM

Prerequisites None

Number of courses Standard major—12 term courses; intensive major—15 term courses

Distribution of courses 2 courses in each of 3 of the 5 departmental fields

Substitution permitted 2 courses from other depts with DUS approval

Senior requirement 2 sems, 1 in senior year, and 1-term senior essay in sem or in PLSC 480; or 1 sem as specified and 2-term senior essay in PLSC 490, 491

Intensive major PLSC 474; 2 courses in each of 3 of the 5 departmental fields; 1 sem as specified and 2-term senior essay in PLSC 490, 493

B.A. DEGREE, INTERDISCIPLINARY CONCENTRATION

Prerequisites None

Number of courses Standard major with interdisciplinary concentration—12 term courses; intensive major with interdisciplinary concentration—15 term courses

Distribution of courses 7 courses in concentration; 2 courses in each of 2 of the 5 departmental fields; max of 3 courses from other depts with DUS approval

Senior requirement 2 sems, 1 in senior year, and 1-term senior essay in sem or in PLSC 480; or 1 sem as specified and 2-term senior essay in PLSC 490, 491

Intensive major PLSC 474; 7 courses in concentration; 2 courses in each of 2 of the 5 departmental fields; 1 sem as specified and 2-term senior essay in PLSC 490, 493

Introductory Courses

* PLSC 030a, Law and the Limits of Freedom

This course evaluates the desired role of law in free and modern societies and dissects, more broadly, the relationship between law, the state, and the individual in such societies. Particularly, this course considers when, if ever, it is appropriate to use law to limit freedom in the name of equality, security, community, utility, and/or morality. Enrollment limited to freshmen. Preregistration required; see under Freshman Seminar Program.  SO

PLSC 111b, Introduction to International Relations

Key questions and issues in international relations, including both the evolution of the international system over the last century and topics in contemporary world politics. Causes and conduct of war, sources of order, the emergence of new actors, the spread of norms, and evolution of the global economy.  SO

PLSC 113b, Introduction to American Politics

Introduction to American national government. The Constitution, American political culture, civil rights, Congress, the executive, political parties, public opinion, interest groups, the media, social movements, and the policy-making process.  SO

PLSC 114a, Introduction to Political Philosophy

Fundamental issues in contemporary politics investigated through reflection on classic texts in the history of political thought. Emphasis on topics linked to modern constitutional democracies, including executive power, representation, and political parties. Readings from Plato, Machiavelli, Hobbes, Locke, Rousseau, Madison and Hamilton, Lincoln, and Tocqueville, in addition to recent articles on contemporary issues.  SO
EPE: Intro Political Phil

PLSC 116a, Comparative Politics: States, Regimes, and Conflict

Introduction to the study of politics and political life in the world outside the United States. State formation and nationalism, the causes and consequences of democracy, the functioning of authoritarian regimes, social movements and collective action, and violence.  SO

PLSC 118b, The Moral Foundations of Politics

An introduction to contemporary discussions about the foundations of political argument. Emphasis on the relations between political theory and policy debate (e.g., social welfare provision and affirmative action). Readings from Bentham, Mill, Marx, Burke, Rawls, Nozick, and others.  SO
EPE: Intro Political Phil

PLSC 149a, Sustainability in the Twenty-First Century

Sustainability as an overarching framework for life in the twenty-first century. Ways in which this integrated policy concept diverges from the approaches to environmental protection and economic development that were pursued in the twentieth century. The interlocking challenges that stem from society's simultaneous desires for economic, environmental, and social progress despite the tensions across these realms.  SO

International Relations

* PLSC 120a, The Global Politics of Artificial Intelligence

Study of the processes in which machine intelligence transforms economic, societal, and global politics and of the political challenges in development of beneficial artificial intelligence. Topics include the provably of beneficial AI; the effects on, and of, inequality and unemployment; military conflict and strategy with autonomous weapons, cyber weapons, and AI-enabled intelligence; and determining which global institutions are best suited for providing global public goods, the legitimate aggregation of preferences, and the control of AI development.   SO

* PLSC 123a, Political Economy of Foreign Aid

Introduction to modern quantitative research methods in international political economy, with a focus on empirical evidence related to foreign aid. The state of knowledge regarding the effects of development assistance on democratization, governance, human rights, and conflict. The challenges of drawing causal inferences in the domain of international political economy.  SO

PLSC 128b, Development Under Fire

The recent emergence of foreign assistance as a tool of counterinsurgency and post-conflict reconciliation. Evaluation of the effects of aid in settings such as Afghanistan, Iraq, Colombia, and the Philippines. Examination of both theory and practice of conducting development work in the shadow of violence. Strengths and weaknesses of different evaluation methods, including randomized control trials (RCTs) and survey experiments.  SO

PLSC 130b, Nuclear Politics

The pursuit, use, and non-use of nuclear weapons from the Manhattan Project to the present. The effect of the international system, regional dynamics, alliance politics, and domestic politics in the decision to pursue or forgo nuclear weapons. The role of nuclear weapons in international relations, the history of the Cold War, and recent challenges in stemming nuclear proliferation.  SO

* PLSC 133b, Causes of War

Examination of social, symbolic, and psychological aspects of international relations, with emphasis on the roles of perception and reputation in militarized conflict. Topics include deterrence, honor, prestige, signaling, audience costs, and international law. Rationalist, psychological, and cultural perspectives. Some attention to research design.  SO

* PLSC 135b, Media and Conflict

The theory and practice of reporting on international conflict and war, and its relation to political discourse in the United States and abroad. Materials include case studies of media coverage of war in Europe, Africa, and the Middle East.

* PLSC 137a or b, Terrorism

Theoretical and empirical literature used to examine a host of questions about terrorism. The definition(s) of terrorism, the application of the term to individuals and groups, the historical use and potential causes of terrorism, suicide and so-called religious terrorism, dynamics within groups that use terrorism, and counterterrorism strategies and tactics. Theoretical readings supplemented by case studies.  SO

* PLSC 138a, Eurozone Crisis

Examination of how Europe continues to struggle with repercussions of the Great Recession and the impact of the Eurozone crisis in countries such as Portugal, Ireland, Spain, and, especially, Greece. Topics include the euro as a viable common currency; why and how the Eurozone crisis erupted and spread; and whether this catastrophe could have been averted.  SO

* PLSC 141a, Global Governance

Examination of global policy problems, the acceleration of interdependence, and the role, potential, and limits of the institutions of global governance to articulate collective interests and to work out cooperative problem solving arrangements. Consideration of gaps in global governance and controversies between globalization and state sovereignty, universality, and tradition.  SO

PLSC 143a, International Challenges of the Twenty-First Century

Challenges facing the global community as it undergoes a power transition with the relative decline of the West and the emergence of powers such as China, India, and Brazil. Natural challenges such as demography, climate, and energy security; systemic issues related to the balance of power, economic crises, and trade globalization; new threats, including rogue states, terrorism, and WMD proliferation; regional challenges in Asia, Ukraine/Crimea, the Middle East, and Africa.  SO

PLSC 146b, Global Environmental Governance

The development of international environmental policy and the functioning of global environmental governance. Critical evaluation of theoretical claims in the literature and the reasoning of policy makers. Introduction of analytical and theoretical tools used to assess environmental problems. Case studies emphasize climate, forestry, and fisheries.  SO

PLSC 148b, Theories, Practices, and Politics of Human Rights

Introduction to core human-rights issues, ideas, practices, and controversies. The concept of human rights as a philosophical construct, a legal instrument, a political tool, an approach to economic and equity issues, a social agenda, and an international locus of contestation and legitimation. Required for students in the Multidisciplinary Academic Program in Human Rights.  SO

* PLSC 152a, Global Firms and National Governments

Interactions between large-scale firms that make international investments and policy makers and government officials in the “host” countries. National and subnational officials who work to attract investments (or not) and who set policies regulating global firms and their investments. Focus on less-developed countries. Theories as to why firms “globalize”; case studies of controversies created by overseas corporate investments; the changing economic landscape associated with investments by countries such as China, Brazil, and India.  SO

* PLSC 153a, Diplomacy and International Order

Study of the diplomatic interaction of states on issues of war and peace. Topics include: responsibilities of diplomats for conveying information about the states they represent; international agreements and conferences; the role of mediators; differing effects of signals sent through private and public channels. Fundamental knowledge of international relations and diplomatic history.  WR, SO

* PLSC 157b, Japan and Human Rights in Asia

Examination of human rights and democracy in East Asia through the lens of Japan's past and present role as a regional power. Students gain understanding of what increased competition with China for influence over Southeast Asian nations, as well as growing tension in the South China Sea, might entail for regional development, human rights implementation, and further democratization of the region.  SO

* PLSC 162a, Japan and the World

The historical development of Japan's international relations since the late Tokugawa period; World War II and its legacy; domestic institutions and foreign policy; implications for the United States; and interactions between nationalism and regionalism.  SO

PLSC 165b, International Security

An introduction to international security. General theories of state interests and behavior; the causes, conduct, and regulation of violence among nations.  SO

PLSC 166b, The New Europe

European politics since World War II, with emphasis on postwar geopolitical settlement, the development of the European Community and Union, the demise of the Soviet Union and other communist regimes, and current challenges facing Europe.  SO

* PLSC 183a, Europe, the United States, and the Iraq Crisis

Examination of the contrasting relations between the main European powers and the United States in their approaches to Iraq in order to understand the divisions attending the 2003 war and the subsequent transfer of sovereignty. Topics include the Iran-Iraq War (1980–88), the first Persian Gulf crisis (1990–91), the sanctions regime (1991–2002), problems of peacekeeping and nation building, and the Obama exit strategy.  SO

PLSC 191b, Ethics and International Affairs

Moral reflection taken beyond state boundaries. Traditional questions about state conduct and international relations as well as more recent questions about intergovernmental agencies, nongovernmental organizations, and the design of global institutional arrangements.  HU

* PLSC 373b, Politics and Change in Contemporary China

Advanced study of the politics and changes in contemporary China. Emphasis on the post 1949 period, paying special attention to political memory, and the role of memory in shaping resistance, protest, and contention.  SO

American Government

PLSC 205a, Law, Leadership, and the Political Development of the American Presidency

Examination of the constitutional law, historical development, and current operations of the American presidency. Topics include formal powers, the organization and mobilization of popular support, the modern executive establishment, and the politics of presidential leadership.  SO

* PLSC 208b, The Unbelievable Campaign of 2016 In Context

Examination of the 2016 presidential election both as an event in recent history, and as a lens for understanding voting, campaigns, and elections as integrated elements of American democracy.  SO

* PLSC 210a, Political Preferences and American Political Behavior

Introduction to research methods and topics in American political behavior. Focus on decision making from the perspective of ordinary citizens. Topics include utility theory, heuristics and biases, political participation, retrospective voting, the consequences of political ignorance, the effects of campaigns, and the ability of voters to hold politicians accountable for their actions.  SO

PLSC 211b, Social Policy and the Politics of Inequality in the United States

The contours and consequences of inequality in the United States, including explanations for why it has expanded over the past several decades and why Americans seem to tolerate more of it. The development of the modern welfare state and the causes of racialized poverty, segregation, and incarceration.  SO

* PLSC 212a, Democracy and Sustainability

Democracy, liberty, and the sustainable use of natural resources. Concepts include institutional analysis, democratic consent, property rights, market failure, and common pool resources. Topics of policy substance are related to human use of the environment and to U.S. and global political institutions.  SO

PLSC 213b, Courts, Media, and Politics

Introduction to the study of judicial politics, most prominently the study of the United States Supreme Court, and the ways in which courts and judges engage with Congress, the executive branch, public opinion, and the media. Topics include the role of precedent, judicial ideology, and strategic decision making in shaping law and policy through courts; and understanding the relationship between courts and the media's coverage of them.   SO

PLSC 214b, The Politics of American Public Policy

Public policy in the United States and the methodological and theoretical tools used to study the forces that shape it. Economic and political science perspectives on the policy process and contemporary American governance. Domestic policy issues such as health care, economic inequality, job insecurity, the federal debt, environmental protection, criminal justice, financial regulation, and primary and higher education.  SO

PLSC 215b, Environmental Politics and Law

Exploration of the politics, policy, and law associated with attempts to manage environmental quality and natural resources. Themes of democracy, liberty, power, property, equality, causation, and risk. Case histories include air quality, water quality and quantity, pesticides and toxic substances, land use, agriculture and food, parks and protected areas, and energy.  SO

* PLSC 217a, U.S. National Elections

An investigation of electoral realignments, voting for president and Congress, voter turnout, incumbency advantage, nominations, and campaign finance.  SO

* PLSC 219b, Politics of the Environment

Historical and contemporary politics aimed at regulating human behavior to limit damage to the environment. Goals, strategies, successes, and failures of movements, organizations, corporations, scientists, and politicians in conflicts over environmental policy. Focus on politics in the U.S., including the role of public opinion; attention to international regulatory efforts, especially with regard to climate change.  SO

* PLSC 222a, Race and the Politics of Punishment

Historical and contemporary issues surrounding race and punishment in the American criminal justice system, with a focus on research involving institutional development, policy history, and racial orders. The influence of racial perceptions on policy preferences; ways in which the criminal justice system defines and creates race; debates about black inclusion and equality and their relation to debates about crime and punishment.   SO

* PLSC 224b, Political Leadership

Examination of political leadership as both a concept and a practice. Survey of classic works by Machiavelli, Carlyle, Weber, Lenin, and Schumpeter. Consideration of the difference between transformational leadership and transactional leadership, and between executive leadership and reform leadership. Issues include the conundrum of "democratic leadership" and the role of narrative in leadership.  WR, SO

* PLSC 225a, Policing in America

Examination of major innovations in policing over the past three decades. The effects of these changes on crime control and public safety; the extent to which new approaches have been implemented in police departments; dilemmas these approaches have created for police management. Analysis of critical issues that persist in the profession, including race, the use of force, and police deviance.  SO

* PLSC 226a, Popular Politics in the Nineteenth-Century United States

Study of the evolution of popular politics, political culture, and political participation in the United States, from the revolutionary era through the nineteenth century. Consideration of changing conceptions of popular politics and representation in United States history. Students become familiar with the sources and methods for researching political history.  WR, HU

* PLSC 227b, Refugee Law and Policy

Controversies and challenges in U.S. and international refugee law and policy, with a focus on asylum law and practice in the United States. Emphasis on legal reasoning and analysis through close reading of statutes, regulations, and case law. Final project is a legal brief on behalf of a client.  SO

PLSC 229a, Election Rules and Campaign Strategy

Examination of political campaigns in the United States. Factors that people use to make voting decisions; the influence of election rules on candidate strategy and on voters' decision-making processes; reasons candidates choose to pursue specific strategies, and the effectiveness of those strategies at winning votes; critical analysis of opinions voiced by campaign operatives and media personalities.  SO

* PLSC 232b, Information, Technology, and Political Power

The role of information in the political process. Effects on politics of information generated through new and old technologies; the decision-making processes of voters, mass mobilizers, and government reformers, as well as elite political actors such as campaign operatives, bureaucrats, and members of Congress; political and moral issues related to information flows, including privacy, innovation, and collective action.  SO

PLSC 233b, Constitutional Law

An introduction to the main themes of the American Constitution—popular sovereignty, separation of powers, federalism, and rights—and to basic techniques of constitutional interpretation. Special emphasis on the interplay of constitutional text, judicial doctrine, and constitutional decision making outside the judiciary.  SO

* PLSC 235a, Political Journalism and Public Policy

The effects of political journalism on American public policy from 1960 to the present. Focus on changes in the media during the past few decades. The Dewey-Lippmann debate on the role journalism should play in politics, marketing in the 1968 presidential campaign, broadcast news and audience fragmentation in the 1970s, media dysfunction and the Clinton and Obama health care initiatives, the Internet, hyperpartisanship, media bias, and recent gun control initiatives.  SO

* PLSC 236b, Presidential Campaigns and the Media

The intersection of two institutions in the midst of major transformations—the political campaign industry and the news business. Presidential campaign coverage during the last third of the twentieth century; the beleaguered economic structure of the news business in the twenty-first century; media coverage of the 2008 and 2012 presidential races, with emphasis on how campaigns adapted to the changed news landscape and to new ways of communicating with voters.  SO

* PLSC 237a, Persuasion and Political Communication

The history of political communication, persuasion, and demagoguery in the American political tradition, from the design and ratification of the Constitution to modern debates over terrorism and authoritarianism. The limits of democratic deliberation and representation; elite communication strategies that influence policy making and elections.  SO

* PLSC 238a, Media and Politics in the 2016 Presidential Election

Close study of the 2016 election in real time. Analysis of all aspects of the ecological relationships between media, politicians, and the public, as well as their respective weights and responsibilities.  SO

PLSC 240b, Public Schools and Public Policy

Consideration of some ways in which educational researchers and policy makers have identified, examined, and sought to address the goals and challenges of preK-12 public education in the United States. Education Studies 110 is strongly recommended.  SORP

* PLSC 241b, The Making of Political News

The processes through which political news gets made. How the form and content of political news are shaped in and through the ongoing relationships between political operatives and journalists; ways in which these actors attempt to structure and restructure such relationships to their benefit.  SO

* PLSC 244a, Journalism, Liberalism, Democracy

The news media's role in configuring the democratic public sphere, from the early synergy of print capitalism and liberalism through the corporate consolidation of mass media and the recent fragmentation and fluidity of "news." Classical-humanist and civic-republican responses to these trends.  SO

* PLSC 245a, Urban Politics and Policy

Analysis of competing approaches to urban politics and political economy with a focus on how scholars debate the study of power, race, and space. Application of theories to contemporary policy issues such as policing, metropolitan disparities, and inner-city revitalization.  SO

PLSC 248a, Political Economy of Health Care

Political and economic factors that have influenced efforts to achieve quality, economy, and equality in the delivery of American health care since the early twentieth century; some attention to international comparisons. Medical licensing; drug regulation; malpractice law; provider payment and care management; guaranteed health insurance; emergence of the private, employer-based insurance system; recent legislative actions and controversies concerning the quality and cost-effectiveness of health care. Recommended preparation: introductory microeconomics.  SO

* PLSC 251b, Progressivism: Theory and Practice

The progressive reform tradition in American politics. The tradition's conceptual underpinnings, social supports, practical manifestations in policy and in new governmental arrangements, and conservative critics. Emphasis on the origins of progressivism in the early decades of the twentieth century, with attention to latter-day manifestations and to changes in the progressive impulse over time.  SO

* PLSC 253a or b, Journalism

Examination of the practices, methods, and impact of journalism, with focus on reporting and writing; consideration of how others have done it, what works, and what doesn’t. Students learn how to improve story drafts, follow best practices in journalism, improve methods for obtaining, skeptically evaluating, and assessing information, as well as writing a story for others to read. The core course for Yale Journalism Scholars. No prerequisites.  WR

PLSC 254a, Political Parties in the American System

The evolution of American political parties and the role of parties and partisanship in contemporary government and elections. Empirical and theoretical accounts of parties, including divided government, parties in Congress, realignment, responsible party government, party identification, and ideology. Elite-led polarization, decline and resurgence of strong parties, and the antiparty constitutional tradition.  SO

* PLSC 256b, American Political Institutions

The origins and development of American political institutions, especially in relation to how institutions shape the policy process. Issues of temporality, policy feedback, and policy substance.  SO

PLSC 257b, Bioethics and Law

The treatment by American law of major issues in contemporary biomedical ethics: informed consent, assisted reproduction, abortion, end-of-life care, research on human subjects, stem cell research, and public health law. Readings include legal cases, statutes, and regulations. No background in law assumed.  SO

* PLSC 265a, Classics of Political Journalism

Examination of presidential campaigns and campaign reporting as a window through which to gain a wider and richer understanding of American political history. Primary texts include: The Making of the President 1960 by Theodore H. White; Miami and the Siege of Chicago by Norman Mailer; The Selling of the President 1968 by Joe McGinniss; The Boys on the Bus by Timothy Crouse; Fear and Loathing on the Campaign Trail ’72 by Hunter S. Thompson; Portrait of an Election by Elizabeth Drew; Political Fictions by Joan Didion; What It Takes by Richard Ben Cramer; and “Up, Simba!” by David Foster Wallace.  SO

* PLSC 274b, Cities: Making Public Choices in New Haven

Examination of cities, particularly the relationship of people to place and most importantly to one another, through the prism and experiences of the City of New Haven. Exploration of how concepts of social capital and legitimacy of institutions in policy design and execution, are key to the well being of community residents. How cities, in the context of retreating or antagonistic strategies by the state and  federal governments, can be key platforms for future economic and social wealth creation.  SO

* PLSC 280b, Poverty, Politics, and Policy in the American City

Examination of how politics informs the formulation and implementation of policies to address urban poverty. Consideration of alternative explanations for poverty and alternative government strategies. Focus on efforts by local organizations and communities to improve their situations within the context of government actions.  SO

Political Philosophy

* PLSC 283b, Recent Work on Justice

In-depth study of one contemporary book, author, or debate in political philosophy, political theory, or normative economics. Focus varies from year to year based on student interest and may include a ground-breaking new book, the life's work of a prominent author, or an important theme in contemporary political thought.  HU

* PLSC 285a, Political Theology

Discussion of political theology as the foundation of political authority. The question of whether authority derives from reason or revelation, or from secular or religious sources. Examination of the dialectic of secularization and religious belief in some of the writings of Hobbes, Spinoza, Rousseau, Kant, Maistre, Schmitt, and Strauss. a course in political philosophy or intellectual history.  HU, SO

* PLSC 286b, Twentieth-Century Interpretations of Plato

In depth study of twentieth-century interpretations of Plato by foremost thinkers for whom Plato was not only the founder of the Western philosophic tradition but also the basis of their own thought. Particular emphasis on the relation between philosophy, language, and politics. Readings include Martin Heidegger, Hannah Arendt, Hans-Georg Gadamer, and Leo Strauss. Prerequisites: At least two previous courses in political philosophy, as well as some working knowledge of Plato.

* PLSC 290a, Foundations of Modern Social Theory

Major works of social thought from the beginning of the modern era through the 1920s. Attention to social and intellectual contexts, conceptual frameworks and methods, and contributions to contemporary social analysis. Writers include Adam Smith, Alexis de Tocqueville, Karl Marx, Emile Durkheim, and Max Weber.  SO

* PLSC 291a, Justice, Taxes, and Global Financial Integrity

Study of the formulation, interpretation, and enforcement of national and international tax rules from the perspective of national and global economic justice. Previous courses in one or two of the following: law, economics, political science, or political philosophy.  HU

* PLSC 298b, Gandhi and His Critics

A survey of Gandhi’s social and political thought and the writings of his key critics and interlocutors such as Tagore, Savarkar, Nehru, Ambedkar. Through these exchanges, students explore the main currents of political thought in modern India. Topics include: modernity, the state, and violence; individual and collective swaraj; nationalism, diversity, and community; social reform and the critique of caste; religion, secularism, and toleration; democratic politics and the challenge of equality.  HU

* PLSC 300a, Revolutions, Rights, and Representation

Historical overview of individual rights and representative government, using the American Revolution as a focal point for examining their long-term development from Antiquity to the twenty-first century.  SO

* PLSC 303a, Ethics, Politics, and Economics in an Age of Extinction Risk

Interdisciplinary exploration of social and ethical consequences of emerging technologies that pose threats to the survival of humanity. Focus on how philosophies of technology, ethics of intergenerational responsibility, and theories of global catastrophic risk might be applied to future social, political, environmental, and economic impacts of synthetic biology, bioengineering, human enhancement technologies, artificial intelligence, and nanotechnologies.

* PLSC 306b, Sovereignty

The history of the concept of sovereignty, including current debates over its meaning in political philosophy, international relations, and jurisprudence. Discussion of how these debates relate to both historical and contemporary political problems.  SO

* PLSC 310b, Self-Interest and Its Critics

Debates surrounding the concept of self-interest from the seventeenth century to the present. Defining self-interest, its nature, and its limits, and distinguishing it from other motives for behavior; advantages and disadvantages of assuming self-interested motives for human actions; current scholarship on economic rationality, rational choice in political science, and philosophical ethics.  SO

* PLSC 313a, Bioethics, Politics, and Economics

Ethical, political, and economic aspects of a number of contemporary issues in biomedical ethics. Topics include abortion, assisted reproduction, end-of-life care, research on human subjects, and stem cell research.  SO

* PLSC 321b, Studies in Grand Strategy I

The study of grand strategy, of how individuals and groups can accomplish large ends with limited means. The spring semester focuses on key moments in history that illustrate strategic thinking in action. During the summer, students undertake research projects or internships analyzing strategic problems or aspects of strategy. The following fall, students put their ideas into action by applying concepts of grand strategy to present day issues. Admission is by application only; the cycle for the current year is closed. Previous study courses in political science, history, global affairs, or subjects with broad interdisciplinary relevance encouraged.  HU, SO

* PLSC 325b, Intergenerational Perspectives on Social Justice

An in-depth study of how the emerging body of intergenerational perspectives on rights and just social action is bringing critical weight to bear on more conventionally accepted viewpoints on the nature of justice. Exploration of how developing thoughts such as intergenerational accountability and obligations to future generations are dealing with potentially catastrophic crises such as climate change, overpopulation, and species extinction risk.

* PLSC 327b, Advanced Topics in Modern Political Philosophy

Advanced survey of modern political philosophy. Study of the empire and its role in the development of modern political thought. Readings include Vitoria, Montaigne, Locke, Montesquieu, Diderot, Kant, Burke, Mill, Hobson, Arendt. Prerequisite: substantial course work in intellectual history and/or political theory.  HU, SO

* PLSC 329b, Émigré Social Theory

Major works of social thought written in the wake of World War II by Central European émigrés and refugees. Theories of capitalism and socialism, interpretations of modern politics and history, critiques and defenses of Western intellectual traditions. Central texts include works by Arendt, Hayek, Horkheimer and Adorno, Polanyi, and Schumpeter.  HU

* PLSC 330b, Morality and Black Literature

Conceptual and philosophical connections between black literature and moral philosophy. Ways in which both sets of studies inform each other for the purposes of theorizing social justice.  SO

* PLSC 332a, Philosophy of Science for the Study of Politics

An examination of the philosophy of science from the perspective of the study of politics. Particular attention to the ways in which assumptions about science influence models of political behavior, the methods adopted to study that behavior, and the relations between science and democracy. Readings include works by both classic and contemporary authors.  SO

* PLSC 334a, The Making of Black Lives Matter

Intellectual history and philosophical underpinnings of black political and social thought relevant to the Black Lives Matter social movement. The works of black writers; the role of love in social justice; how artistic movements impact critical black thought; sexuality, gender, and invisibility; and whether the role of leaders is still relevant in black politics and movements.   HU

* PLSC 335b, Political Emotions

An in-depth study of political emotions including anger, fear, compassion, indignation, hope, and pride. Consideration of the role emotions play in politics; the way they influence political judgment and behavior; the relation between reason and emotions; and the dynamics of opinion formation and group identification.   HU

* PLSC 337b, Afrofuturism

Survey of Afrofuturism from political and philosophical perspectives, with investigation of alternative forms of narrative and social critique to bear on contemporary questions of race, imagination, and social justice. How black writers, thinkers, and musicians have turned to speculative genres to observe American history and politics as well as urgent moral dilemmas.  SO

* PLSC 338b, The Ethics of Climate Change

The response of the United States to global climate change and questions of climate justice. The importance of bridging the gap between theories of climate justice and real world climate policy. Topics include the effort to fairly mitigate and adapt to climate change; the responsibility to act upon climate change by countries and individuals; and how economics, environmental, and social sciences should contribute to the conceptualization of action-guiding moral and political theories.  SO

Analytical Political Theory

* PLSC 161a, Studies in Grand Strategy II

The study of grand strategy, of how individuals and groups can accomplish large ends with limited means. During the fall semester, students put into action the ideas studied in the spring semester by applying concepts of grand strategy to present day issues. Admission is by application only; the cycle for the current year is closed. Prerequisite: PLSC 321. Previous study courses in political science, history, global affairs, or subjects with broad interdisciplinary relevance encouraged.  SO

PLSC 326a, Borders, Culture, and Citizenship

The contemporary refugee crisis in Europe and elsewhere; new patterns of migration; increasing demands for multicultural rights of Muslim minorities in the West; and transnational effects of globalization faced by modern societies. Examination of these issues in a multidisciplinary perspective in light of political theories of citizenship and migration, as well as laws concerning refugees and migrants in Europe and the United States.  SO

* PLSC 341b, The Logic of Randomized Experiments in Political Science

Instruction in the design, execution, and analyzation of randomized experiments for businesses, nonprofits, political organizations, and social scientists. Students learn to evaluate the impact of real-world interventions on well-defined political, economic, and social outcomes. Specific focus on randomized experimentation through field and survey experiments, with design and analysis principles extending to lab and so-called "natural" experiments. Any introductory probability or statistics course.  QR

PLSC 342b, Strategic Models of Politics

Introduction to formal political theory including application of rational choice and game theoretic analysis. Key topics and findings include: why voters vote in elections; how candidates choose platforms; why common resources tend to be overexploited; whether the state is needed for public good provision; how electoral systems shape politicians' and voters' behavior; whether voters can hold politicians accountable for their performance in office; how constitutions affect politicians' incentives to compromise; and why countries fight wars.  SO

* PLSC 343b, Equality

Egalitarian theories of justice and their critics. Readings in philosophy are paired with analytic methods from economics. Topics include Rawlsian justice, utilitarianism, the veil of ignorance, Dworkin's resource egalitarianism, Roemer's equality of opportunity, Marxian exploitation, and Nozickian procedural justice. Some discussion of American economic inequality, Nordic social democracy, and the politics of inequality. Recommended preparation: intermediate microeconomics.  SO

PLSC 344a, Game Theory and Political Science

Introduction to game theory—a method by which strategic interactions among individuals and groups in society are mathematically modeled—and its applications to political science. Concepts employed by game theorists, such as Nash equilibrium, subgame perfect equilibrium, and perfect Bayesian equilibrium. Problems of cooperation, time-consistency, signaling, and reputation formation. Political applications include candidate competition, policy making, political bargaining, and international conflict. No prerequisites other than high school algebra. Political Science majors who take this course may not count ECON 159 toward the major.  QR, SO

PLSC 346b, Game Theory and International Relations

Introduction to game theory and its applications in political science and economics, with a focus on international relations. Standard solution concepts in game theory; case studies from important episodes in the history of international relations, including World War II, the Cuban missile crisis, and the 2003 U.S.-led invasion of Iraq. Recommended preparation: introductory microeconomics.  QR, SO

Comparative Government

* PLSC 347a, Post-Conflict Politics

Consideration of a range of issues and challenges faced by countries emerging from domestic conflict. Focus on elements of peace-building—disarmament and demobilization, post-conflict elections, institution-building, and reconstruction—as well as modes of transitional justice and mechanisms for truth and reconciliation.  SO

* PLSC 348a, Democratization

Scientific study of the processes, causes, and consequences of democratization and how to apply insights gained from such study to evaluate public policy discourse. Topics include the emergence of modern democracy in the nineteenth century; the rise of fascism in inter-war Europe; the breakdown of democracy in Latin America; the collapse of communism and the resurgence of authoritarianism in Eastern Europe; and the Arab Spring and its aftermath.  SO

* PLSC 351a, European Fascism

Fascism in Europe, in its variety of national manifestations, between 1918 and 1945. Topics include the range of theories about the social, intellectual, and political origins of Fascism; regime forms implemented by Fascists; crimes perpetrated by Fascist movements in Europe; and the long-term effects of Fascism on political debates in contemporary Europe.  SO

* PLSC 353a, State and Society in Contemporary Ukraine

Functioning of the state and society in post-Soviet Ukraine. The formation and subsequent transformation of the state, including the constitution, the branches of government, the party system, elections, foreign policy, education, and social welfare. Various facets of society such as religion, media, language use, gender relations, poverty, and racism considered. Particular attention paid to the Orange Revolution and Euromaidan.  SO

* PLSC 354a, The European Union

Origins and development of the European Community and Union over the past fifty years; ways in which the often-conflicting ambitions of its member states have shaped the EU; relations between member states and the EU's supranational institutions and politics; and economic, political, and geopolitical challenges.  SO

* PLSC 366b, European Politics

Comparison of the political systems of the major European countries. Topics include political institutions, electoral politics and political parties, public policies, and contemporary problems.  SO

* PLSC 368a, Global Politics

Major issues in current international politics, from political economy to international security, with a broad geographic focus. Emphasis on analytic and synthetic skills. Themes include the politics of economic crisis, global governance, state failure, and political and economic development.  SO

* PLSC 372a, Politics and Markets

Examination of the interplay between market and political processes in different substantive realms, time periods, and countries. Inquiry into the developmental relationship between capitalism and democracy and the functional relationships between the two. Investigation of the politics of regulation in areas such as property rights, social security, international finance, and product, labor, and service markets. Topics include the economic motives of interest groups and coalitions in the political process.  SO

* PLSC 374b, Language Politics

Various aspects of language politics on the levels of the state, international organizations, non-state entities, and individual citizens. Analysis of official documents, everyday practices, and underlying beliefs informing them. Examination of various domains such as education, public administration, media, churches, workplace, and family.  SO

* PLSC 375a or b, Populism from Chavez to Trump

Investigation of the nature of the populist phenomenon and its impact on politics, society, and the economy in various regions of the world. Conceptual and methodological analyses are supported by comparative assessments of various empirical instances, from populist politicians such as Hugo Chavez and Donald Trump, to populist social movements such as the Tea Party and Occupy Wall Street.  SO

* PLSC 376b, Extreme and Radical Right Movements

Extreme and radical right movements and political parties are a recurrent phenomenon found in most parts of the world. Discussion of their foundational values and the causes of their continuous, even increasing, support among citizens and voters.    SO

* PLSC 377a, Islam and Democracy in the Modern Middle East

The development of regimes of government in Muslim countries since the nineteenth century. Early constitutional movements, the rise of political Islam, the management of religion in various twentieth-century states, the Iranian revolution, and the growth of Salafi ideas, culminating in the ISIS "caliphate."  SO

PLSC 378b, Contesting Injustice

Exploration of why, when, and how people organize collectively to challenge political, social, and economic injustice. Cross-national comparison of the extent, causes, and consequences of inequality. Analysis of mobilizations for social justice in both U.S. and international settings. Intended primarily for freshmen and sophomores.  SO

* PLSC 380b, Development and Change in Iraq and Afghanistan

The recent history of foreign intervention in Afghanistan and Iraq and the impact of post-conflict development upon Afghan and Iraqi social and political life. Analysis of changes brought about through military and civil interventions aimed at promoting democratization, human rights, gender and women’s economic empowerment, social stability, community development, and the well-being of minorities and refugees.  WR, SO

PLSC 382b, Comparative Politics in Latin America

Introduction to major theories of political and economic change in Latin America, and to the political and economic systems of particular countries. Questions include why the continent has been prone to unstable democratic rule, why countries in the region have adopted alternatively state-centered and market-centered economic models, and, with the most recent wave of democratization, what the remaining obstacles might be to attaining high-quality democracy.  SO

PLSC 385a, Introduction to African Politics

Themes in contemporary African politics, including the impact of colonialism, the challenges of geography, and the effects of economic and political reform attempts and of efforts at resistance. Comparative introduction to the politics of various African countries.  SO

* PLSC 393a, Comparative Constitutionalism and Legal Institutions

Introduction to the field of comparative constitutional law. Constitutional texts, materials, and cases drawn primarily from those constitutional democracies that are also members of the Group of Twenty Nations and that respect judicial independence.  SO

* PLSC 396b, Contemporary State Building in Asia

Consideration of the legacies of war and revolution in China, Vietnam, Malaysia, and other areas of Southeast Asia. Exploration of the process and consequences of political strategies in wartime and the establishment of political institutions, with empirical focus on the Chinese Revolution and how the legacies of that conflict shaped the modern Chinese state.  SO

* PLSC 398b, Comparative Political Economy

Introduction to issues in political economy across time and place. The field's diverse theoretical underpinnings and its place in the context of political science and of the social sciences more generally; theoretical perspectives such as materialism, institutionalism, and cognition/culture/beliefs; interactions between government and the economy in democratic and nondemocratic regimes and in developed and developing countries. Enrollment limited to senior Political Science majors.  SO

* PLSC 402a, Gender, Sexuality, and Human Rights in Africa

Interrogation of the powerful role of human rights as an organizing discourse and hegemonic order through examination of shifting state sovereignties; political economy of human rights in Africa and beyond, with a focus on the dialectical relationships between access to resources, political power, and global capitalism; identity politics and policing of identities through human rights; liberal democratic regimes; institutionalization of human rights; and the emancipatory potential of human rights.  SO

* PLSC 403a, Globalization and the State in South Asia

Study of major political and historical debates, events, and issues surrounding the subcontinent of South Asia since 1947. Focus on issues of multiple identities, shared yet contested conceptions of the past, ethno-linguistic linkages across territories, and the challenges of democratization, all operating under the international structural constraints, that make up the prevailing political contours.  SO

* PLSC 409a or b, Civil Conflict

Forms of civil conflict and political violence and theories about reasons for and implications of these types of violence. Natural and philosophical foundations of political violence; the potential roles of ethnicity, economic factors, territory, and political institutions and structures in the onset and dynamics of civil conflict; problems of conflict termination.

* PLSC 413b, Governance in Africa

Engagement with governance problems in developing countries, without taking policy rhetoric of the international development sector at face value. Identification of governance failures and innovative solutions. Basic understanding of social science research methods and interest in the international development sector is assumed.  

* PLSC 414b, Development and Democracy in Africa

Introduction to development challenges in Africa. Use of current social science research to examine the driving forces behind Africa's poor development outcomes and to explore options for changing Africa's development trajectory. The effectiveness of democratization as a broad development tool. Evaluation of micro-level projects designed to tackle specific problems.  SO

PLSC 415b, Religion and Politics

Challenges to the view of religion as an archaic force destined to dwindle away in a secularized society. A historical and comparative investigation of the relationship between religion and politics in Europe and the United States, with comparisons to the Muslim world.  SO

* PLSC 420a, Rivers: Nature and Politics

The natural history of rivers and river systems and the politics surrounding the efforts of states to manage and engineer them.  SO

* PLSC 423b, Political Economy of Poverty Alleviation

Overview of classic and contemporary approaches to the question of why some countries have done better than others at reducing poverty. Emphasis on the role of politics.  SO

PLSC 424a, Gandhi, King, and the Politics of Nonviolence

A study of the theory and practice of nonviolent political action, as proposed and practiced by M. K. Gandhi and Martin Luther King, Jr.  The origins of nonviolence in Gandhian politics and the Indian independence movement; Gandhian influences on the Civil Rights movement; King’s development of nonviolent politics; the legacies and lessons for nonviolent politics today.  SO

PLSC 430a, The Politics of Development Assistance

Study of development assistance, a dominant feature of the political economies of some of the world's poorest countries. The motivations and politics of aid from donors' perspectives; the political and economic impact of aid on developing countries. Proposals to make aid a more effective instrument of development.  SO

* PLSC 436a, Violence: State and Society

Examination of large-scale violence, generally within sovereign states. Why violence happens, why it takes place in some locations and not others, why it takes specific forms (insurgency, terrorism, civilian victimization), what explains its magnitude (the number of victims), and what explains targeting (the type or identity of victims).  SO

PLSC 439b, Challenges of Young Democracies

Challenges faced by young democracies, such as organizing free and fair elections, controlling government corruption, building an accountable system of governance, sustaining development, and curtailing conflict and violence. Factors that lead to the consolidation of democratic politics or to stagnation and a return to nondemocratic political systems.  SO

* PLSC 446b, Welfare States across Nations

How different societies counterbalance capitalism and deal with social risks. Welfare state regimes and their approaches to inequality, unemployment, poverty, illness, disability, child rearing, and old age. Why the United States has an exceptionally small welfare state.  SO

* PLSC 448a, Business and Government after Communism

Reassessment of business's place in society—and its relations with government—in an era when alternatives to capitalism are moribund. Topics include the role of business in regime change, corruption and attempts to combat it, business and the provision of low income housing and social services, and privatization of such core functions of government as prisons, the military, and local public services.  Prerequisites: three courses in political science.  SO

* PLSC 466b, Ethics and the Multinational Business Firm

Ethical challenges facing modern business leaders, with a focus on multinational corporations conducting business in developing countries. Topics include the normative basis of the market and firm, labor rights, environmental harms, corruption and fraud, and obligations of managers to shareholders and to other stakeholders. Priority to junior and senior majors in Ethics, Politics, and Economics.  SO

Statistical and Mathematical Methods

PLSC 452a, Introduction to Statistics: Political Science

Statistical analysis of politics, elections, and political psychology. Problems presented with reference to a wide array of examples: public opinion, campaign finance, racially motivated crime, and public policy.  QR

PLSC 453a, Introduction to Statistics: Social Sciences

Descriptive and inferential statistics applied to analysis of data from the social sciences. Introduction of concepts and skills for understanding and conducting quantitative research.  QR

Advanced Courses

* PLSC 471a, Individual Reading for Majors

Special reading courses may be established with individual members of the department. They must satisfy the following conditions: (1) a prospectus describing the nature of the program and the readings to be covered must be approved by both the instructor and the director of undergraduate studies; (2) the student must meet regularly with the instructor for an average of at least two hours per week; (3) the course must include a term essay, several short essays, or a final examination; (4) the topic and/or content must not be substantially encompassed by an existing undergraduate or graduate course. All coursework must be submitted no later than the last day of reading period.

* PLSC 472b, Individual Reading for Majors

Special reading courses may be established with individual members of the department. They must satisfy the following conditions: (1) a prospectus describing the nature of the program and the readings to be covered must be approved by both the instructor and the director of undergraduate studies; (2) the student must meet regularly with the instructor for an average of at least two hours per week; (3) the course must include a term essay, several short essays, or a final examination; (4) the topic and/or content must not be substantially encompassed by an existing undergraduate or graduate course. All coursework must be submitted no later than the last day of reading period.

* PLSC 474b, Directed Reading and Research for Junior Intensive Majors

For juniors preparing to write yearlong senior essays as intensive majors. The student acquires the methodological skills necessary in research, identifies a basic reading list pertinent to the research, and prepares a research design for the project. All coursework must be submitted no later than the last day of reading period.

* PLSC 480a or b, One-Term Senior Essay

For seniors writing the senior essay who do not wish, or are unable, to write the essay in a department seminar. Students must receive the prior agreement of a member of the department who will serve as the senior essay adviser, and must arrange to meet with that adviser on a regular basis throughout the term.

* PLSC 490a, The Senior Colloquium

Presentation and discussion of students' research proposals, with particular attention to choice of topic and research design. Each student frames the structure of the essay, chooses research methods, begins the research, and presents and discusses a draft of the introductory section of the essay. Enrollment limited to Political Science majors writing a yearlong senior essay.

* PLSC 491b, The Senior Essay

Each student writing a yearlong senior essay establishes a regular consultation schedule with a department member who, working from the prospectus prepared for PLSC 490, advises the student about preparation of the essay and changes to successive drafts. Enrollment limited to Political Science majors writing a yearlong senior essay.

* PLSC 493b, Senior Essay for Intensive Majors

Each student in the intensive major establishes a regular consultation schedule with a department member who, working from the prospectus prepared for PLSC 490, advises the student about preparation of the essay and changes to successive drafts, as well as reporting the student's progress until submission of the final essay. Enrollment limited to Political Science intensive majors.