Key to Course Listings

AFAM Course subjects are listed by three- or four-letter abbreviations in capitals. See the complete list of Subject Abbreviations.
Staff Staff is listed when an instructor has yet to be assigned to a course or when there are multiple instructors. Refer to Yale Course Search ( for individual section instructors.
Prerequisite: MATH 120 Prerequisites and recommendations are listed at the end of the course description.
L5, HU Language courses are designated L1 (first term of language study), L2 (second term), L3 (third term), L4 (fourth term), or L5 (beyond the fourth term). Other distributional designations are QR, WR, HU, SC, and SO, representing quantitative reasoning, writing, humanities and arts, science, and social science, respectively. See “Distributional Requirements” under “Requirements for the B.A. or B.S. Degree” ( in the Academic Regulations.
0.5 Course cr Most courses earn one course credit per term; variations are noted.
RP A course designated “RP” meets during the reading period. See “Reading Period and Final Examination Period” ( in the Academic Regulations.
*HIST 012 All seminars are starred and enrollment is limited. The instructor’s permission may be required.
ITAL 310/LITR 183 A course with multiple titles, i.e., with two or more departments in the title line, counts toward the major in each department where it appears.
TR The abbreviation “TR” denotes a literature course with readings in translation.
Attributes Courses with department-specific designations, such as YC English: 18th/19th Century and YC BENG: Bioimaging, are applied toward the requirements of certain majors. See the program descriptions of the relevant majors.
HIST 130J, MCDB 201L A capital J or L following the course number denotes a History departmental seminar or a science laboratory, respectively.